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Unformatted text preview: Upper Paleolithic in Eurasia Eastern Gravettian 30,000-10,000 BP o Stone tool industry similar to Gravettian industry in western Europe o Continues late in central/eastern Eurasia o Hunted broad spectrum of animals including fox, rabbit, and bison o Distinction from western Europe o Focused big-game hunting Evidence includes mammoth bone houses at Mezhirich (eastern Europe) Late ice-age houses. Bone and antler needles used to sew shelter and clothes. Siberia: MalTa and Afontova-Gora, by 22,000 BP o Focused on periglacial steppe mammals especially mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, following big-game north and north and eventually into north America Far Ne: DUktai Cave, by 18,000BP o Unique micro-blade and biface technologies o Possible connections with the new world (traveling up north by exploiting big game moving towards n. America) Rope impressions in clay and ivory figurines (perhaps used for religious objects, fertility objects. Who were the first Americans? Far Northeast Asia Duktai tradition 18,000 BP o Hunters and gatherers chasing game herds o Migration into Beringia (land bridge connecting N.E. Asia and N. America) o Question: by land or by sea? o Evidence disappears further south, not a lot of evidence of settlement on the coast of Alaska bc of sea level rising Theories about the peopling of Americas o Single migration path across Beringia and South through the ice-free corridor. Sinodonty Lack of early coastal sites (sea levels have risen, sites are probably under water) The settlelment of Alaska o Broken Mammoth site 13,000 BP Well drained ridge overlooking marshy lowland Temporary encampment o Swan Point Site 13,700 BP Microblades (similar to those from NE Asia Swan Bones Why would anyone want to settle Alaska? o Early humans, as with all predatory animals, pursued game Siberian Connection: The Biological Evidence o Native north Americans have Sinodonty dentition, which they share with northern asian population shovel-shaped incisors-single-rooted upper first molars-triple-rooted lower first molars-Sinodonty can be traced back to a southeast asian source, with migrations into Siberia ca. 20,000 BP, then into America Clovis: What is it? o Paleoindian Cultures 13,200-12,900 BP Mainly in Western Great Plains Grasslands, hunted Bison and Mammoth Kill Site Evidence easy to identify, glamorous Clovis Points--distinct fluted base, indigenous invention Clovis Hunting-Some animal species hunted to extinction Theories about the Peopling of Americas 2. Dual Migrations across Beringia and along the coast-Possible archaeological evidence from coastal site in Alaska-Skull Morphology--Kennewick man suggests second (perhaps earlier) migration along coastline-Very early sites in North and South America that predate opening of the ice-free corridor (opened maybe 13-10,000 ya) controversial theory Clovis First?...
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