Bio Lab literature review

Bio Lab literature review - Bacteria Jose Leon Nicole...

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Bacteria Jose Leon Nicole Villaverde April, 01 2008
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They exist everywhere, around, on, and inside every single plant, animal, and human being in the planet. Without them no life would be possible, indeed, life would never have even flourished on Earth. Bacteria are, without a doubt, the most important organism in all the kingdoms of life. While the all the good bacteria do is well documented, their negative effects, especially on humanity, are much more known. By describing and comparing the most important details of two of the more important bacteria species, a general overview of the pathogenic (harmful to humans) bacteria will be given. Bacteria are simple single celled organisms that feature small circular DNA, cell division by binary fission, lack of internal compartmentalization, singular flagellum, and metabolic diversity (Raven et al, 2008). They are much simpler than Eukaryotic cells and differ from the other types of prokaryotes, Archaebacteria in four key areas: Plasma membranes, cell walls, DNA replication, and gene expression (Raven et al, 2008). Bacteria have three basic shapes. Bacilli (singular: bacillus) are rod shaped while coccus are roughly spherical and Spirillum are long and spiral shaped, as the name would imply. Bacteria have tough cell walls made of peptidoglycan. Depending on the thickness and arrangement of the wall, the bacteria is either gram-positive or gram- negative (referring to the ability of the cell walls to retain crystal violet dye). This cell wall enables bacteria to survive in a variety of environments. Even the stomach whose gastric juice, because of its acidity, may destroy many types of bacteria may not affect certain types of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella Typhosa, which may survive this acid medium and produce Gastrointestinal or systemic infection (Bellanti, 1978).
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Movement of bacteria is accomplished by a single flagellum that most bacteria posses. Bacteria reproduce by the process of binary fission, but they exchange genetic information through a variety of methods. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer when two cells link up. Transduction is when non virulent viruses inject genes
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Bio Lab literature review - Bacteria Jose Leon Nicole...

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