Biology Exam IV - Biology Exam IVCh. 12 1.) Why do Cells...

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Biology Exam IV- Ch. 12 1.) Why do Cells Divide     - a. 2.) Definitions     - a. Somatic-  (non reproductive) all cells besides sperm and egg b. Gametes- (reproductive cells) sperm and egg c. Haploid-  Cells that have two sets of chromosomes(made of Chromatin) d. Diploid- Cells that have one set of chromosomes (23 chromosomes each) e. Genome- All of a cells DNA 3.) What Happens in Cell Cycle     - a. Cell Cycle- i. Interphase -  Cell growth and Copying of chromosomes in preparation for  cell division. Consists of three sub-phases (G1- First gap, S- Synthesis,  G2- Second Gap) ii. Mitotic Phase- Cell Division (Two Sub- phases- Mitosis – Division of  cytoplasm) 1. G2 -  Nuclear envelope over nucleus, nucleus contains one or  more nuclei, two centrosomes have formed by replication of one,  each centrosome has two centrioles.  2. Prophase -  Chromatin fibers are more condensed, nucleoli  disappear, sister chromosomes appear, mitotic spindle begins to 
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form ( composed of centrosomes and microtubules extending from  them) 3. Prometaphase - Nuclear envelope fragments, microtubules go  from centrosome to middle of cell, some microtubules attach to  kinetochore (kinetochore microtubules) they jerk chromosomes  back and forth, non kinetichore microtubules interact with those  from opposite poles 4. Metaphase-  longest stage, centrosomes at opposite poles,  chromosomes line up on metaphase plate, for each chromosome,  the kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to  kinetochore microtubules of opposite poles, spindle forms 5. Anaphase - shortest stage, two sister chromatids part (each side  becoming a full chromosome), separated chromosomes move to  opposite poles as kinetochore mirotubles shorten, cell elongates  as nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen. 6. Telophase -  Two daughter nuclei begin to form, Nuclear  envelopes begin to form, Chromosomes are less condensed 7. Cytokinesis - (Underway during late telophase),Division of  cytoplasm,  forms a cleavage furrow which splits the cell in two
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Throgerson during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State University.

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Biology Exam IV - Biology Exam IVCh. 12 1.) Why do Cells...

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