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Unformatted text preview: Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch): On His Own Ignorance and That of Many Others Values Aristotle, but keeps it in perspective o Aristotle is definitely under God in a hierarchy o Great thinkers are only human o Aristotle is only human Christian above all else Scholastics deified Aristotle; he deifies God alone Biggest problem with scholastics: didn’t pursue virtue, or make people want to be better Petrarch is man of action, not just philosophy o Not just learning about God, but acting upon it and being relevant o Not just learning virtue, but acquiring it Knowledge comes from God o True knowledge Ciceronian ideal: rhetoric and ethics Everything made for man Order and balance Niccolo Machiavelli: A New View of the State “The Prince” Obtaining the empire is much harder than retaining it People don’t like a new order of things, or a change Commit all the cruelties at once, so that you don’t have to keep being cruel o Ends justify the means Aim of the people is more honest than that of the nobles Doesn’t buy into the concept of ideal republics, because they have never actually been seen in reality (swipe at Plato) Be both feared an loved, but better to be feared if just one, but not hated o Fear is easier to maintain than love o People are selfish and can give up on loving a ruler “The Discourses”...
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