Western Heritage Study Guide

Western Heritage Study Guide - Western Heritage Study Guide...

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Western Heritage Study Guide The Code of Hammurabi o Death penalty for many crimes o Class, social distinctions Women have unequal rights Slaves and foreman have different rights o Often reciprocal punishment, “eye for an eye” o Respect for property and individual rights o Type of social covenant Covenant: a binding agreement between two parties o Order in social sphere The Hebrews: Creation o Hardships and sorrows of everyday like are the consequences of disobedience to God o Reflects God’s ordained natural order for the universe o God outside the natural world o Myth: story to explain something, adopted by a community or culture The Hebrews: Covenant and Law o God makes covenant with Abram, name changed to Abraham Descendants will be many; circumcision o 10 Commandments Laws apply equally to all Curses will come to those that break commandments, while blessings for those that follow law The Hebrews: Kingship o Lord guided king Saul o Upheld the Lord’s law o God assisted the king’s o Saul attempts to repeatedly kill David, yet as David responds, he never uses violence o Saul dies Herodotus: The History o Following Greek war with Persia o Otanes for representative democracy, the many “the rule of one is neither good nor pleasant” “Allows a man to do as he likes without being answerable” The rule of many, the fairest, no king At the end, will not adhere to monarchy, so his family never will be under the monarchy
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o Megabyzus oligarchy, the few Choose the worthiest Avoid “rude, unbridled mob” o Darius for monarchy Best man to rule nation One man got nation, nations should be kept to one man o Preservation of Greek culture and glory Thucydides: The History of the Peloponnesian War o Reflects Athenian values o Historical account Didn’t just make things up, but got everything from learned sources or saw it himself o Pericles’ funeral oration Called to give oration Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta o The actions of the men were enough—don’t need additional honor from Pericles People don’t remember speech, but instead the men who died Focuses on why they did what they did, not what they did What Pericles says does not really matter in the grand scheme of things Makes case for connection between individual and community Community is above individual Politics is something for the whole community; central to Athenian life
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