Western Heritage Study Guide2

Western Heritage Study Guide2 - Western Heritage Study...

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Western Heritage Study Guide, Term 2 Two Views of Augustus Augustus: The Deeds of the Deified Augustus o Resume of Augustus’ own achievements Waged successful wars Liberated at his own expense Rome from the faction of a Republic “refused to accept any office contrary to tradition of ancestors” Honored by temples, etc. Built temples and public works Increased empire to Egypt, etc. P. Cornelius Tacitus: The Annals o Saw little to admire in the 1 st century ruling class o Believes other accounts of emperors are inaccurate because of government pressure o His account is accurate because he is not under pressure Not sycophant: suck up o Augustus won over the soldiers, people with bribes of gifts and food o Corrupt rule Suetonius : Nero , an excerpt from the Lives of the Twelve Caesar Nero is screwed up o Likes little boys o Maybe had a thing for his mom, then murdered her and his aunt too o Broke out in fits of rage o Would dress up at night go out and harass people o Committed suicide Marcus Aurelius Antoninus: Meditations Last of five Good emperors Stoic Learned lessons for friends and family Abstention from doing ill and even thinking ill Live the simple life, moderation Do not let emotion have too much effect on yourself, be level headed Never exhibit any symptom of anger or any other passion, but to be at the same time utterly impervious to all passions and full of natural affection Love of family, truth, justice Universal idea: one law for all, individual equality and freedom of speech Nature and Order o Live in accordance with nature o Working towards perfection/harmony with nature
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o Listen to instruction of the gods Didn’t depend on philosophers for his outlook on life Ideas are relevant Places emphasis on reason Justinian: Institutes Codification of the Roman Laws from many years, became standard for East and West empire Emperors should also have the power of law in addition to the power of war Law of nature o Belongs to humans and animals, everyone Two kinds of Law o Civil The law which each people makes for itself is peculiar to itself Takes name of country to which it belongs o Universal Law Law which natural reason has prescribed for all mankind is held in equal observance among all peoples The Gospel According to St. Matthew Written for the Jews, to justify that this was the Messiah Types of Jews o Sadducees o Pharisees o Essenes o Zealots Reinterprets entire Jewish Law during his sermon on the mount Talked of Kingdom of Heaven o Apostles thought it was earthly, when in fact it was heavenly o Sometimes paradoxical sayings about this kingdom Two biggest commands o Love the Lord thy God o Love neighbor as thyself o
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