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IntroductionIn the cell unit, the features of plant, animal, and bacterial cells were observed. For the plant cell, different from the animal and bacterial cells, chloroplast traits such as undergoing photosynthesis and the absorption of the color green were contradicted to animal and bacterial cells. The goal of the cell unit was to gain knowledge about cell structure, osmosis (the diffusion of water), respiration (the combination of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain in which glucose is converted to carbon dioxide and water), and photosynthesis (the main source of energy for plants). To understand these cellular processes the structure of the cell was observed through text figures and through microscopes. Many instruments were used to acquire data. With this data it allowed further understanding of how the processes were performed. For example, controlling photosynthesis produced different rates of carbon dioxide. Also, before observing respiration, carbohydrate structures were examined. In connection with respiration, the effect of certain reactants and fermentation were tested. Photosynthesis testing dealt extensively with the chemical reaction that took place. In general, each process had to be understood before it could be tested, but detailed observation of cell structure, osmosis, respiration, and photosynthesis allowed for better understanding. Methods and MaterialsThroughout the Cell portion of the Biology laboratories many different methods and materials were used to observe and to collect data from various types of cells. Compound microscopes were used to observe both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and slides and cover slips were used to hold the cells in place for viewing. The Nikon E200 Coolpix Camera was used to record data of cells; the computer was used to store that data. Three types of cells: plant
cells, cheek cells and bacteria cells were observed. A red dye was required to observe the cheek cells. Pipettes were used to obtain samples of solution. A razor and tweezers were used to manipulate plants for viewing. A clock was used to time experiments. Test tubes were used to contain solutions. Alcohol thermometers were used to observe temperatures. A ruler was used for measuring distances traveled by pigments. A lamp light was used to maintain a constant amount of light intensity. A carbon dioxidegas sensor was used to measure the amount of carbon dioxidecontained in bottles during experiments. Graphing calculators were attached to the sensors to display the amount of carbon dioxidein ppm. A water bath, a beaker and ice, was used to maintain a specific temperature during experiments. Acetone was used as a solvent and was contained in a glass dish. A flat-rimmed beaker was used to prevent the acetone from evaporating too quickly. A filter paper cylinder was used to display the separation of pigments while the solvent spread up the filter paper. A pigment extract was used to observe the various pigments that it contained. Glucose test strips were used to observe the amount of glucose in