Mechanisms of Self Defense \u2013 Acquired Immunity, spring 2016 (4) - Mechanisms of Self Defense Acquired Immunity 1 McCance Chapters 2 Introduction Third

Mechanisms of Self Defense – Acquired Immunity, spring 2016 (4)

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Mechanisms of Self Defense – Acquired Immunity 1
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McCance Chapters 2
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Introduction Third line of defense: Adaptive or acquired immunity, often called the immune response or immunity. Once external barriers have been compromised and inflammation has been activated, the adaptive immune response is initiated. Molecules of the immune response are closely integrated with those of the innate response. Many components of the innate response facilitate the development of the adaptive immune response. Conversely, products of the adaptive immune response use many components of the inflammatory response. 3
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Introduction Inflammation is rapid, nonspecific, and short lived. Adaptive immunity is slower acting, specific, and long lived. Both systems are essential for complete protection against infectious disease. Since many inflammatory processes are triggered or affected by immune processes and vice versa, an understanding of both is necessary to appreciate how pathogenic infections are fought or combated. 4
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Introduction General characteristics of adaptive immunity: Immune system of a normal adult is continually challenged by many substances ( antigens ) that it recognizes as foreign (not of itself). Antigens are associated with pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Antigens are also found on non-infectious environmental agents such pollens, foods, and bee venom. Other antigens are associated with clinically derived drugs such as vaccines, transfusions, and transplanted tissues. 8
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Review: Innate Immunity and Inflammation – Complement System Classical pathway – activated by proteins of the acquired immune system ( antibodies ) bound to their specific targets ( antigen ). Antigen: Substance capable of causing a specific immune response, any substance capable of reacting with the products of that response (antibodies). Antibody: Immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that caused its synthesis (and with similar molecules). Antibodies are synthesized by B lymphocytes that have been activated by the binding of an antigen to a cell surface receptor. 9
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Introduction Unlike inflammation, which is nonspecifically activated by cell damage and/or pathogenic microorganisms, the immune response is designed to afford long term specific protection (immunity) against particular invader microorganisms. Products of the adaptive immune response include plasma proteins called immunoglobulins (antibodies), as well as blood cells called lymphocytes. Specificity and memory are the primary characteristics that differentiate the immune response from other protective mechanisms . For example: If you cut your finger one time you will go through innate immunity, then if you cut it again you go through the same processes… no change in this 10
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Introduction Immune response is divided into two phases.
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