Marine Bio Review Exam1 - Marine Bio Review: Exam #1...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Marine Bio Review: Exam #1 Lecture 1: Physical Environment -Water covers 72% of Earth -80% of S. Hemisphere, 61% N. Hemisphere -Over 84% of the ocean is more than 2,000 m deep -On avg 4,000 m -The deepest part of the Pacific: Mariana Trench -Pacific Ocean: largest ocean, little affected by climatic changes or river input, lots of volcanoes and islands -Atlantic Ocean: narrow, bordered by marginal seas (ie. North Sea, Congo, Amazon), drains many rivers, more affected by terrestrial climate -Marginal Seas affected strongly by: -Regional climate, -Precipitation -Evaporation -River input Tend to be very shallow and have limited exchange w/ open ocean (ie. Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea) -Topography: Continental shelf, Deep sea floor, and Oceanic Ridge system -Plate tectonics -Earth’s surface divided into tectonic plates -Fault: break in Earth’s crust -Ridge system at border of tectonic plates -Oceanic crust: formed at ridges, moved laterally, and destroyed by subduction (2 plates meet/slide under each other, forming trenches) -Mid-Oceanic Ridge: longest mountain range on Earth -discovered in 1950s -46,000 miles long (wraps around Earth-starts at Iceland) -made of basalt rock -formed by plate tectonics -Mid-Atlantic Ridge: portion of mid-oceanic in the Atlantic & Arctic oceans -highest peaks of mountain range peak above water creating islands -Iceland -Bermuda -Azores -Tristan de Cunha -Ascension -Ocean composition: volcanic sources, atmospheric precipitation, sulfur/nitric oxides, water, dissolved organic matter, dissolved salts, particulate organic matter, particulate mineral matter -Properties of seawater: asymmetric bond enhances ability to bond (making water good solvent); high specific heat capacity, can store large amts of heat, high heat of vaporization
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
-Salinity: # grams dissolved inorganic salts per thousand (ppt or ‰) grams seawater -Controlled by: evaporation, precipitation, river run-off -Ocean water: 33-37‰ Baltic -Near coastal/estuarine: 5-30‰ vs. Mediterranean -Temperature and salinity affect density bc of evaporation -Stratification -Top: buoyant, low salinity -Bottom: dense, high salinity -Differences in salinity and density drive currents -Measurement of salinity -Chlorinity: grams of chlorine per 1000 ml of seawater -salinity= 1.81 x chlorinity -measured by titration -Conductivity: increases with increasing salinity -Optical refraction: more salt, more refraction of light -uses refractometer -Esutaries: body of water where freshwater source from land mixes with seawater -often results in strong salinity gradient from river to ocean -salinity may be higher at bottom and lower at top due to source of river water coming to lay on top of seawater below or mixing with the seawater to some degree -Ex. Tampa Bay -Types -highly stratified -moderately stratified (wind, tide mixing) -vertically homogeneous (high wave action/wind) -Oxygen - (+) atomosphere, photosynthesis - (-) respiration, chemical oxidation -hyperoxic: high oxygen content -hypoxic: low oxygen content -anoxic: no oxygen content
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This test prep was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BSC 3312 taught by Professor Firth during the Spring '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

Page1 / 23

Marine Bio Review Exam1 - Marine Bio Review: Exam #1...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online