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Lecture 21 - Lecture 21 Richness and Diversity I Key Words...

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Lecture 21: Richness and Diversity I. Key Words A. Species Richness - B. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis - C. Relative Abundance - D. Relative Abundance Distributions - E. Species Evenness - F. Species Diversity - G. Diversity Index - H. Simpson Index - I. Shannon-Wiener Index - II. Key Concepts A. Species richness is a good measure of __________________________________, but care must be taken to avoid ________________________________________. B. Communities can differ in species richness because of several mechanisms, including _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________. C. Observed elevational gradients in species richness could occur because of _____________________________________________________, or because of _________________________________________________________________. D. Observed latitudinal gradients in species richness could be explained by several potential mechanisms operating at small (________________________________ _____________________________________________________) or large scales (________________________________________________________________). E. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis states that ________________________ _________________________________________________________________. F. Species evenness refers to ____________________________________________ __________________________________________; evenness can be affected by _________________________________________________________________. G. Species diversity is _________________________________________________; the species diversity of communities can be compared with _________________. III. General Outline A. Analyzing Numerical Structure of Communities 1. Numerical structure consists of two parts a. b. B. Species richness is __________________________________________________, and it is given the symbol S 1. Counting the number of species is more difficult than it sounds, because ___________________________________________________________ 2. A good way to estimate species richness: a. Take samples _________________________________________ b. At each sample, count up the number of _______________ species and add it to ___________________________________________ c. The number of new species added at each sample will be ________ ________________________________ as more samples are taken
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d. You could keep sampling until ____________________________, or you could calculate the ________________________________ 3. Ecological processes can affect richness a. Competition: __________________________ þ ______________ ____________________ þ _______________________________ (1) too much competition could _________________________ b. Parasitism (predation): ________________________________ þ ___________________ þ _______________________________ 4. Synthesis: Community comparison a. Community A could have __________________than community B
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