Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10

Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10 - Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10...

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Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10 CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION - Differences between cells: depend on which genes expressed from total repertoire -AKA Differentiation: cells make and accumulate diff sets of RNA and protein molecules -Typical differentiated cell: expresses 10,000-20,000 of 30,000 total genes -Cells control proteins made 1) controlling when and how often given gene transcribed 2) controlling how primary RNA transcript spliced or processed 3) selecting which mRNAs translated by ribosomes 4) selectively activating/inactivating proteins after they’re made -Control of transcription usually exerted at step where process initiated -The promoters of bact/euk genes incl initiation site where transcription begins -contains sites reqd for RNA polym to bind to promoter -Regulatory DNA sequences -as short as 10 nuc pairs and act as gene switches that respond to single signal (in bact) -others sometimes more than 10,000 base pairs, act as molecular microprocessors responding to various signals -must be recognized by gene regulatory proteins that bind to DNA -most cases, protein inserts into major groove of DNA helix and makes series of molecular contacts w/ base pairs -DNA binding motifs -homeodomain: 3 linked α helices -zinc finger: α helix and β sheet held together by molecule of zinc
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Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10 - Cell Bio Chapter 8 and 10...

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