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PeopleChinggis Khangreat military leader (career began after avenged father)loves massacring enemies, seizing their horses and cattle, and ravishing theirwomencreated elite guard in which he can remove any at willissued simple, but draconian (harsh) lawsordered Uighur script → utility of written recordsinitiated one of world’s astonishing campaigns of conquestKhubilai Khangrandson of Chinggisconquered Song1271 adopted name “Yuan” for the dynasty (capital at Dadu, now known asBeijing)used Yangzi River for conquest of Songriver, streams, and canals were effective barriers to cavalry forcesnaval and siege (surrounding town/area and cutting off supplies andforcing them to surrender) warfareSong had weak military, coordination of efforts were poorZhu Yuanzhang (Ming Taizu)poor peasant → rebel leaderfounded Ming Dynastyparents died → went to Buddhist monastery → sent out to beginfluenced by Daoismpeople obeyed superiors, those who did evil will be punisheddisliked elitegovernment officials kneeled before himreallocated service and tax liabilities more fairlycut government expenses when he couldmilitary would be selfsupportingfamilies of military would farmwealthy were to perform lowlevel judicial, police, and taxcollectingservices without pay
didn’t trust the elites/officials → took on all matters in own hand → exhaustedhimselfnegatively affected economy of the MingYongle Emperortook over throne 3 years after Taizu’s son’s son took throneWang Yangmingan officialNeoConfucianismchallenged Zhu Xi’s teachingsobjected that moral principles was something that could be understoodand realized only through careful and rational investigation of events andthings; a process which requires devoting many years in studying classicsand other booksWang Yangming believed that universal principles existed in everyperson’s mindpeople can discover them by clearing minds of material desiresand allowing their inborn knowledge of good surfaceQianlong Emperorsensitive to Manchu identitywanted to keep it alivescrutinized all of ‘Four Treasures’ to make sure offensive books weredestroyedHeshen (“lover” that was his bodyguard) → given power → abused power →executed when Qianlong diedmade sure he was known as sage emperortended to state affairs, filial devotion, poeticCommissioner Lin (Lin Zexu/Lin Tsehsu)compel foreigners from selling opium → British abolished East India Co.exiled for letting Opium War startHong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiuchüan)leader of Taiping Rebellionfailed civil service examthought he was Jesus’ little brother → practiced Christianity
Zeng Guofandestroyed Taipings with armywanted to reinstate strictness of Confucian orderLi Hongzhang (Li Hongchang)fought against rebels with Zeng Guofandefeated Muslim invaders