FinalStudyGuide - People ChinggisKhan greatmilitaryleader(...

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People Chinggis Khan ­ great military leader (career began after avenged father) ­ loves massacring enemies, seizing their horses and cattle, and ravishing their women ­ created elite guard in which he can remove any at will ­ issued simple, but draconian (harsh) laws ­ ordered Uighur script → utility of written records ­ initiated one of world’s astonishing campaigns of conquest Khubilai Khan ­ grandson of Chinggis ­ conquered Song ­ 1271 adopted name “Yuan” for the dynasty (capital at Dadu, now known as Beijing) ­ used Yangzi River for conquest of Song ­ river, streams, and canals were effective barriers to cavalry forces ­ naval and siege (surrounding town/area and cutting off supplies and forcing them to surrender) warfare ­ Song had weak military, co­ordination of efforts were poor Zhu Yuanzhang (Ming Taizu) ­ poor peasant → rebel leader ­ founded Ming Dynasty ­ parents died → went to Buddhist monastery → sent out to beg ­ influenced by Daoism ­ people obeyed superiors, those who did evil will be punished ­ disliked elite ­ government officials kneeled before him ­ reallocated service and tax liabilities more fairly ­ cut government expenses when he could ­ military would be self­supporting ­ families of military would farm ­ wealthy were to perform lowlevel judicial, police, and tax­collecting services without pay
­ didn’t trust the elites/officials → took on all matters in own hand → exhausted himself ­ negatively affected economy of the Ming Yongle Emperor ­ took over throne 3 years after Taizu’s son’s son took throne Wang Yangming ­ an official ­ Neo­Confucianism ­ challenged Zhu Xi’s teachings ­ objected that moral principles was something that could be understood and realized only through careful and rational investigation of events and things; a process which requires devoting many years in studying classics and other books ­ Wang Yangming believed that universal principles existed in every person’s mind ­ people can discover them by clearing minds of material desires and allowing their inborn knowledge of good surface Qianlong Emperor ­ sensitive to Manchu identity ­ wanted to keep it alive ­ scrutinized all of ‘Four Treasures’ to make sure offensive books were destroyed ­ Heshen (“lover” that was his bodyguard) → given power → abused power → executed when Qianlong died ­ made sure he was known as sage emperor ­ tended to state affairs, filial devotion, poetic Commissioner Lin (Lin Zexu/Lin Tse­hsu) ­ compel foreigners from selling opium → British abolished East India Co. ­ exiled for letting Opium War start Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu­chüan) ­ leader of Taiping Rebellion ­ failed civil service exam ­ thought he was Jesus’ little brother → practiced Christianity
Zeng Guofan ­ destroyed Taipings with army ­ wanted to reinstate strictness of Confucian order Li Hongzhang (Li Hong­chang) ­ fought against rebels with Zeng Guofan ­ defeated Muslim invaders ­

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