Exploring Programming Languages -...

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PT1420_Unit1_Reserch_Program_Languages_DavidGFontaine Exploring Programming Languages 1970’s 1) Ada was named for Augusta Ada King, countess of Lovelace, who was an assistant to the 19th-century English inventor Charles Babbage, and is sometimes called the first computer programmer. Ada, the language, was developed in the late 1970’s to early 1980s for the U.S. Department of Defense for large-scale programming. It combined Pascal-like notation with the ability to package operations and data into independent modules. In its first form, Ada 83, was not fully object-oriented, but the subsequent Ada 95 provided objects and the ability to construct hierarchies of them. While no longer mandated for use in work for the Department of Defense, Ada remains an effective language for engineering large programs. 2) Pascal: Developed about 1970 by Niklaus Wirth of Switzerland to teach structured programming, which emphasizes the orderly use of conditional and loop control structures without GOTO statements. Although Pascal resembled ALGOL in notation, it provided the ability to define data types with which to organize complex information, a feature beyond the capabilities of ALGOL as well as FORTRAN and COBOL. User-defined data types allowed the programmer to introduce names for complex data, which the language translator could then check for correct usage before running a program. During the late 1970s and ’80s, Pascal was one of the most widely used languages for programming instruction. It was available on nearly all computers, and, because of its familiarity, clarity, and security, it was used for production software as well as for education. 3) C: Created in 1972; C, computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by American computer scientist Dennis M. Ritchie at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T Bell Laboratories). C was designed as a minimalist language to be used in writing operating systems for minicomputers, such as the DEC PDP 7, which had very limited memories compared with the mainframe computers of the period. The language was devised during 1969–73, alongside the early development of the UNIX operating system. It was based on CPL (Combined Programming Language), which had been first condensed into the B programming language—a stripped-down computer programming language—created in 1969–70 by Ken Thompson, an American computer scientist and a colleague of Ritchie. Ritchie subsequently rewrote and restored features from CPL to create C, eventually rewriting the UNIX operating system in the new language. As the UNIX system was enhanced, a series of changes took place in C between 1977 and 1979. During this time a description of the language became widely available through a book, The C Programming Language (1978), by Brian W. Kernighan and Ritchie. In the mid-1980s it became important to establish an official standard for C, since it was being used in projects subject to commercial and government contracts. In 1983 the American National Standards Institute
PT1420_Unit1_Reserch_Program_Languages_DavidGFontaine (ANSI) set up a committee that further amended and standardized the language. Since then C++

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