# astr101_07_NewtonianGravity.pdf - Astronomy 101 Newtonian...

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Astronomy 101Newtonian Gravity
Describing MotionThree fundamental measurements whendescribing an objects motion:1.Position– where is an object located?2.Velocity & speed– how fast is an object moving?3.Acceleration– at what rate is its velocity changing?
AccelerationAcceleration: any change in velocity.Remember: velocity hasmagnitudeanddirection
Question1. The gas pedal2. The brake pedal3. The steering wheel4. Any of the above1. The gas pedal2. The brake pedal3. The steering wheel4. Any of the aboveWhich of the following can be consideredan “accelerator” in your car?A.The gas pedalB. The brake pedalC. The steering wheelD. Any of the aboveQ07.01
AccelerationAcceleration: any change in velocity.Remember: velocity hasmagnitudeanddirectionANYchange in velocity (magnitude or direction)is an accelerationExamples of an acceleration:1.Increasing Speed2.Decreasing Speed3.Changing direction
Acceleration and VelocityAcceleration: any change in velocity.And object will …Speed up: velocity and acceleration inSAMEdirectionSlow down: velocity and acceleration inOPPOSITEdirections.Change direction: velocity and accelerationdirections arePERPENDICULARto each other.vavava
Forces and Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton (1642 – 1727):studied forces (among manyother things)First to come up with amathematical model todescribe gravity and forces.
ForcesForce: A push or a pull acting on an objectOverall force (“net force”) is the sum of all theforces acting on an object.
Newton’s Three Laws of MotionFirst Law- A body remains at rest or moves in astraight line at a constant speed unless actedupon by an outside (net) force.

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Term
Winter
Professor
bennert