Notes - HIST 102 3/10/08 RE-ORDERING POLITICAL STRUCTURE...

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HIST 102 3/10/08 RE-ORDERING POLITICAL STRUCTURE Europe in Revolution Political History in Europe o The rise of dynastic state: France and Spain o State in Crisis: England in the seventeenth century o The Age of Absolutism: Development of absolute monarchs More tightly-centralized national gov’ts Gradual erosion of local power and autonomy *Refer back to 17 th Century Crisis for problems in English Revolution* (Financial, Political control, rising middle class) The case if Louis XIV (1643-1715, the Sun King) o Centralized gov’ts/ centralized civil bureaucracy o National Legislation o National Judiciary that controlled most judicial activity (National legal system) o Large, standing military under the direct control of national authorities o National tax collection mechanism (King installed national “IRS”) “Spending State” need money to operate o Monarchy as theater (Palace of Versailles) – Statues, portraits, A way to tell people that we have strong powerful king, centralized, everywhere *TO SUM UP ALL 6 IN ONE WORD – CENTRALIZED* Challenges o Principle of absolutism - Key elements of the national gov’t Military, tax collection, judicial system o Sources of Challenges: Church: First Estate, privileged clergy Can’t destroy church, but include in rulings. Try to keep main power Nobility: Second Estate Consist of large share in economic, army, and land Include in gov’t positions so you can control them Representative Legislature: Third Estate Bourgeoisie: Wealthy urban business and professional classes o Demand Civil Liberties, certain controls on royal power, gov’t offices, army services
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HIST 102 Peasantry (21 million) in France: the poor class o want lighter taxes; tax break Urban Laborers: product of industrial revolution o Want fair working conditions 3/14/07 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Time, Work, and Factory Agricultural Revolution o The end of open-field system o Crop diversification o Greater efficiency o Reorganization of labor o Population growth Commercial revolution o The expansion of overseas trade o Attack on mercantilism o Emergence of free trade ideals Employer vs. employee o New way or labor organization o Use of new machines o From home to large worksite o Supervision o Child and women’s labor Working vs. living o Separation of home and work o Impersonal relationship and formal regulations o Industrial time; working hours Men vs. Women o Women’s job in pre-industrial Europe o Major change in sexual division of labor o Man as primary wage earner for family o Women have limited job opportunities
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HIST 102 Working class vs. middle class o Working class Dangerous conditions The “segregated” city o Bourgeoisie class Social recognition Political power Urban vs. Rural o Factories and cities o Agricultural laborers and factory workers West vs. east o Global economy: European trade and manufacture o
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Notes - HIST 102 3/10/08 RE-ORDERING POLITICAL STRUCTURE...

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