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Part 1 of 1 100.0 PointsQuestion 1 of 334.0 PointsIdentify and Describe Broken Windows Theory and how it can be used to reduce crime.Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the theory.Of the weaknesses you've identified above, Explain what you consider as the main criticism of the BrokenWindows theory and explain your reasoning as to why.In1990, when William Bratton joined the New York Police Department as police commissioner, he faced thechallenge of bringing down the crime rate in the city. The underground transit system of New York was a symbol ofthe offense, disorder, and underground graffiti; however, by 2013, Bratton brought a remarkable reduction in thecrime rate of the city. Bratton credited his achievement to the broken windows theory.This theory was proposed byWilson and Kelling in 1982, and it suggested that” If the first broken window in a building is not repaired, thepeople who like breaking windows will assume that no one cares about the building, and more windows will bebroken. Soon the building will have no windows” (Wilson & Kelling, 1982). The broken windows theory advocatesto control the minor disorders in the beginning and “nip them in the bud” to avoid blooming of serious crime.However, the link between minor disorders and severe crimes has not been entirely established, and the theory needsto be tested with a particular design to prove its validity.Broken windows theory assumes that minor offenses are the generator of more severe crimes. If the nuisancebehavior such as vandalism, public drinking, and loitering are ignored, they give birth to more serious crimes.Further, this theory states that prevalence of social incivilities (e.g., verbal harassment, public drinking, andprostitution) and physical incivilities (e.g., vacant lots and abandoned buildings) together cause fear in the minds ofresidents and results in decreased informal social control. Such a situation provides an opportunity for more seriouscrimes. Thus, proponents of the theory suggest that both physical, social disorders provide important environmentalcues that entice potential predators ( Sampson & Raudenbush, 1999).The theory has a profound impact on policing strategies to bring down crime rates around the world. The theory hasits advantage over other methods of restraining crime, as it produces results by merely alerting police for onroaddisorders. Social disorganization theories talk about poverty and inadequate education as reasons for crime;
however, this approach provides a simple way to eradicate the offense through attacking minor disorders.Even though the method has been widely appreciated and practiced, there are some serious critics towards itsimplementation. The validity of the theory has been challenged by many unfavorable opinions. Application of themethod in New York City by NYPD has been called as merely “stop and frisk’ initiatives. Evaluations of the crimecontrol effectiveness of broken windows policing strategies also yielded conflicting results (Braga & Welsh). It is