chapter 15 outline - Amber Abbott Chapter 15 Outline 1....

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Amber Abbott Chapter 15 Outline 1. Introduction to Persuasive Speaking a. The skills of persuasion are useful to everyone b. Aristotle authored the first comprehensive approach to persuasion in 333 B.C. 2. Persuasion Defined a. Persuasion is the process of attempting to change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior. b. Like an informative speech, a persuasive presentation needs to be well organized; to have a clear beginning, middle, and end; to use interesting supporting material; to have smooth transitions; and to be skillfully delivered. c. But in a persuasive speech, the speaker invites the listener to make an explicit choice, rather than just offering information about the options like an informative speech. d. Using force to achieve your goal is coercion. Using weapons, threats, and other unethical strategies may momentarily achieve what you want, but it is not appropriate. e. To be ethical, the persuader has an obligation to be honest and forthright in crafting messages. f. 3 factors one considers when preparing for any speech: i. Needs ii. Interests iii. Background of your audience g. Ethically adapting to listeners is important when persuading others. h. Understanding how an audience is likely to respond to your message not only can help you to develop your presentation, but also can help you be a smarter consumer of persuasive messages that come your way.
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3. Motivating Your Audience: The Psychology of Persuasion a. Motivating with Dissonance i. Cognitive dissonance: the sense of mental disorganization or imbalance that may prompt a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns. ii. Skilled persuasive speakers know that creating dissonance and then offering their listeners a way to restore balance is an effective persuasive strategy. b. Motivating with Needs i. As a speaker, the better you understand what your listeners need, the better you can adapt to them and the greater the chances that you can persuade them to change an attitude, belief, or value, or get them to take some action. ii. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Social needs 4. Self-esteem needs 5. Self-actualization needs iii. Understanding and applying the hierarchy of needs helps you to adapt to your audience. c. Motivating with Fear Appeals i. One of the oldest ways to convince people to change their minds or their behavior is scaring them into compliance. ii. “If you don’t do X, then awful things will happen to you…” iii. The fear aroused creates dissonance. Taking action reduces the fear and can meet a need (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs).
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iv. A strong threat to a family member or someone whom members of the audience care about will often be more successful than a fear appeal directed at the audience members themselves. v.
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course SPEECH 101 taught by Professor Braeolson during the Spring '08 term at University of South Dakota.

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chapter 15 outline - Amber Abbott Chapter 15 Outline 1....

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