Lecture 2_Inside the black box of tourism planning and policy.pdf

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Lecture 2: Inside the black box oftourism planning and policyTRM B314F Urban TourismBy Dr. Louisa Lee2022 Spring
2341Definition of tourismplanning and policyPrinciples of planningGoals of tourism planningand policy in citiesPrerequisites forsustainable urban tourismAgenda
What is planning?Chadwick (1971, p.24) states“Planningis a process, aprocess of human thought and action based upon thatthoughtin point of fact, forethought, thought forthe futurenothing more or less than this is planning,which is a very general humanactivity”Cullingsworth(1997,p.5)states,“Planningisthepurposive process in which goals are set and policieselaborated to implementthem”
What is planning?Planning deals witha set of interdependentandsystematically related decisionsrather thanindividual decisionsThree strands of planning:Economic planning:manage the productive forcesof a countryPhysical planning: develop towns and regionsPublic administration and policy analysis:manage the efficiency and effectiveness of publicagency
Principles of planning1.Places a limit upon the time period over whichprojections into the future can be made without loss ofpractical significance for present decisions2.Establishes the necessity for continuing planning analysisand assessment throughout the planning period and theconstant reevaluation and adjustment of means to ends3.Suggests the use of expectation calculus in connectionwith statements about the future4.Argues for the adoption of a system of framework orstructural planning5.Forces the careful consideration of flexibility in planningwhere thedegree of flexibility introduced into a solutionmust be proportionate to the degree of uncertainty overfuture events
Public policyPublic policy ‘is whatever governments choose todo or not to do’ (Dye, 1992, p.2)It implieschoice between alternativesand must beratified by public agenciesTourism public policy is whatever governmentschoose to do or not to dowith respect to tourism
Public policyInfluencersto tourism publicpolicyincludePressure/ interestgroups ,e.g. tourismindustry associationsSignificant individuals, e.g.business leadersMembers of thebureaucracy, e.g.employees within economicdevelopment agenciesOthers, e.g. academics andconsultants
Public policyDespite the skepticism about the effectiveness ofgovernment, there are still a number of rationales forstate economic intervention, includingImproving economic competitiveness

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World Tourism Organization

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