Spanish Spark Charts - Spanish Grammar

Spanish Spark Charts - Spanish Grammar - SPAR KCHAFI'I...

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Unformatted text preview: SPAR KCHAFI'I SPANISH GRAMM Nouns are used in name people, animals. places. things, and dads In Spanish, every noun has a gendel and number. . Masculine nouns referring to people, animals, or things usually end in -o: ei libro. Feminine nouns referring to people, animals, or things usually end in —a: la silia. B. Nouns that imply a gender, whether biological or social, usually respect that gender: el herrnano (brother), to moza (waitress), ei' camarerd (waiter). C. Most nouns simply change —o to -d to switch from , masculine to feminine: at (him (boy), to chica (girl), - D. Some nouns change completely when referring to different genders: el hombre (man), la mujer (woman); at padre (father), Ia madre (mother). Articles are words, such as the, 0. and some. used to f]'.JOlll‘,' nouns anti Itieir meanings Art-Ctes must agree in gender and number wr'h 1i‘e iIUu'iS they accompdry Maswtlne Feminine Neuter Singular el la lo Piurdl los Ids The definite article corresponds to the English word "the" - and is used: . A. Before the noun: El prufesor (logo 0 Id universide dyer. B. With abstract and generic nouns: Ia noturaleza, . C. with infinitives used as nouns: El liablar otro idiomd es importanie (To speak another language is important.) I D. With nouns listed in a series: Compre Ia leclie. of pan. yet rate. (I bought milk, bread, and coffee.) E. Before titles such as ser‘iar (Mr), senara (Mrs), doctor (Dr), except In direct address. F. Before names of family members: at abueio (grandfa- ther), to rid (aunt), but not with papa or mamc‘i. . G. With clothing and parts of the body Instead of the pos- sessive adjective: i‘vte duele I'a L'CibCZCI. (My head hurts.) : H. Before names of scholastic subjects: at ingiés. la ciencia; ‘ SPARKCHARTS‘ l 50495 Adjectives are used to modify nouns ur :)r:)no:.ns QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES A. Qualifying adjectives add a quality to a noun and agree in gender and number with the noun. 1. To make an adjective plural, add —s after a vowel and —es after a consonant. 2. Most masculine adjectives end in —0: most feminine adjectives end in -a. o. Adjectives that end in -iEin or -6n are made feminine by adding —u and removing the accent: ISBN 1—58663—639-1 L0 0') ('0 (.0 0') to (.0 CO LO r. 03 j\ 0‘) E diemdn, aiemana; cabezén, cabezona. g E g o. Adjectives that end in —dor are made feminine by g g adding -a: encuntddor- encantaddrd ’25 g _E W t: Adjectives ending in -e or In a consonant (—I, -r, *5 g g —n, -z) do not change 5% g 3 3' d. Some adjectives that end In -a do not change 3 .E',’ E and can be both masculine and feminine: hipom- §§ E3 § § to. r050, optimistd, nararij'a, violeia. 5 $1.2, g g N g e When describing a masculine and a feminine E E, g 5 3 ,0 E noun with the same adjective, always adopt the €5.23. ,8, E o E _ masculine form. 3‘3: E 9 ‘ B. Most adjectives are placed immediately after the noun. C. Some adjectives can occur before the noun. In this case, the masculine form is shortened: —(Jl'l perm bueno or Li'l't buen perro (a good dog) --' Adjective Shortened Form "English Form bueno buen - good _ molo mal bod _ _ ' primero primer first _ tercero tercer third D. The adjective grande can take on the shortened form DEFINITE ARTICLES ' J. _ NOUNS/los SUSTANTIVOS E. Masculine nouns that end in the consonants d. I, I1, r, s, or I 2 add -u to become feminine: eI profesor. la profesora. F. some nouns keep the same form for masculine and feminine, in which case the gender is identified by the article: elria arli'sfa, elr’la esrudiante. G. Some nouns are always masculine or always feminine, regardless of the gender of the person they designate: la persona, elbebé, el personafe, Id vicifma. H. Nouns that refer to objects are always a given gender: el pisa, to remand. Nouns ending in —idn, —ded, —tod. —irrd, and —iimbre are usually feminine, J. Irregular nouns I. some nouns ending in -o are feminine: to mono, Id radio. '2. Some nouns ending In -0 are feminine because they are abbreviations of feminine words: to into lid fora- ARTICLES/los ARTICULOS but not after hablar, saber, aprender, or the preposition en: MC gusta fa mate-matted. (I like math.) I. With days of the week and seasons: to fiesta es at mier— coles; but not with days expressed as dates: Hay es tunes. With time expressions and before numerals: E3 to aria. (It is one o’clock.) K. with some common phrases that express place: Esioy en ei lrdbaja. (i’m at work.) L. The neuter article in is used with adjectives. An adjec- tive preceded by to becomes an abstract noun, equiva- lent to "what" In English: Na comprerido lo que dices. (I don’t understand what you're saying.) Note: The word coso means “house” when used with an article and "home" without it. Note: The masculine singular form of the definite article is used before feminine nouns that begin with a stressed a: el aguo; but not in plural: Ids aguas. PREPOSITION AND DEFINITE ARTICLE When the article at ls preceded by the preposition a, the result is the contraction at. if it is preceded by de, the result is def. These are the only two cases of word contraction in Spanish. —Cada did my al' trabojo en bfciclera —Ello solid def pats. house) or urid COSCI grande. However, grdridc always fol- lows a masculine noun; the shortened form is not used: on warm grands (a large room). Gran may also bring a meaning change: un gran hombre (a great man). E. other adjectives can also change meaning depending on whether they are placed before or after the noun: antiguo (old): —mi antiguo perro (my former dog) —mt' perm antiguo (my aged dog) —,iPalJre harribre.J (Poor man!) —un hombre pobro (an impoverished man) pobre (poor): COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES Yo soy masolla due if}. I'm taller than you. more mos que less menos que Yo comi menos que mi hermdno. grafiaj, to more (ta motacicletal. a. some nouns ending in —d are masculine: el mapa, eldia. SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS A. Plural nouns are formed by adding -s to singular nouns that end in vowels and -es to singular nouns that end in consonants: la casa, Ids cases; at tren, los trends. 1. Nouns ending in —s preceded by an unstressed vowel do not change for the plural: ei lanes, Ids tunes. 2. If the -s is preceded by a stressed vowel, it does change: el auiobus. los autobuses. 3. Nouns ending in -z change to a —c and add ~25: el Idpiz, los Iapices: la luz. ids laces. Mixedgender groups always adopt the masculine plural form: 105 padres (parents), los nir‘ios (children). INDEFINITE ARTICLES Masculine Feminine Singular on and Plural unos unos Indefinite articles correspond to the English words "a," an,” and "some." They also are used in Spanish to mean “approximately” or "a few": Campre unas manzanas. (i bought a few apples.) The indefinite article: A. B. Is used before nouns indicating profession and social Precedes the noun, status when the nouns are followed by an adjective or qualifying phrase. Otherwise, the indefinite article is omitted before such nouns: —And es Lina alumna mate but Aria es alumna. . is omitted in exclamations after words like (true. .I (what a...!) and fat (such). . Is omitted with the numbers cieri (one hundred), mil (one thousand), or other expressions expressing quan- tity, such as media dacena (a half-dozen). . Is omitted after expressions with come (as). SIT1 (with- out), cierto (certain), or oira (another), DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES Mascullne Feminine Meaning ifi Singular esfa libro esta casa this bookihouse ese libro esa co_so thot bookfhouse aque! libro aquella cosa thof book/house over there [far away) t-ttural estos libros esters cases these books/houses resos libros esas casos tho—Se books/houses aquellos aquellas those books/houses libros cosos over there (far away) PDSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES gran only before feminine nouns: and gran casa (a large I 0 When grande and peaueno refer to physical size, regular comparative equivalents (mas grande, mends grande) often are used instead: bigger than mine.) 0 Mayor and menor typically are used in the context of age: —rniherrr1arto mayor (my older brother) . Full Form Full Form Short I ate less than my brother did. Masculine Feminine Form Meaning equal tan como Esta camiso es tan card como la otra. mic“) mic“) mus) my This shirt is as expensrve as the other one. —— itiyiofii tuydts) tuis) your IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES suyols) suyals) suis) his/her, their nuestrolsl nuesfrois) our Qualifying . Comparative . vueslrols) vuestrois) your [with plural subject) Advectlve Mac'an Adjective Meqmng I V I f bueno good meio, bener In Spanish, possessrves come in full and short orms. The mom bad peer worse full forms are used after the noun; the short forms are used —d— b. 7 6-;- before the noun: —-los libros iuvds (your books) gm” 8 '9 mayor 'gger —tus libros (your books) pequer'ro smdll menor smaller INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES Indefinite adjectives refer to people or things without identifying them specifically. The most common indefinite —-Su cast: as mds granola que to mid (His house is | adjectives are: cada (each/every) algun, algunar’d, dlgunosr’os (some) ningifm, rii'nguna (none) SPAR KL'iHH T SPANISH GRAMMAR PRONOUNS/IOS PHONOMBE’ES Pronouns are used !0 repioce news and certain preposii'rono? phrases. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS » v ’ Reflexive pronouns are used to conjugate reflexive verbs (verbs in which the subject . erfo ms a t' ' , Personal pronouns substitute for the names of people or objects. They vary In form p r n ac_|0n on Itself) according to number and gender. Pronoun Manning Pronoun meaning Dim "1mm me myself nos ourselves Person Sflhlfld obhfl. obiafi- W“ re yourself _ _ as yourselves Singutar i yoll) me(me) me_(_me)_ meimyself) j consi§L_ with/to himseli, oneself, etc. se/sr' themselves/yourselves(formal) 2 (0 (YOU) (6 (YOU) ’6 (YOU) ’6 (Yourseif) se himself/herseIf/itseIf/yourselt (formol) 3-masc. éI/Ud. [hriit/you) lo (him/it) ie/seihim) se/siihimseh) 3-fem. eIIo (she/it) lo (her/it) le/seiher) se/sitherself) RELATIVE PRONOUNS P'”"“' 7 "05mm [WE] "OSNS’ "oslusl "osiourse'vesi Relative pronouns refer to an earlier noun or action (an antecedent). Unlike in English, 2 vosotros' (you) 05“ (you) 05* (you) os’ (yourselves) they cannot be omitted. 311m“. eilos/Uds. "hi/you) (gs (them) les/setthem) se/silthemselves)_ 5* Id Pl M I 3-fem. eilas (they) (as (them) les/se (them) se/siithemselves) m r H To“ "a h h «A . . . . . . . — t t/ ' / / 'The second-person familiar plural, vosotros, Is used primarily In Spain. Most Latin (Me—W1“ w o w om - American countries use the third person plural—usiedes (Uds.,I—for both the familiar CU“! CUG'ES. Wh'Ch and the formal forms of second person with a plural subject. (7016” qUienQS Who/Whom - A. Subject pronouns usually are used only for emphasis and clarity, since verb endings CUyo/a (WW/OS Whose in Spanish indicate the person speaking. to que is used when the antecedent is a whole clause or concept. 1. Subject pronouns usually go before the verb, at the beginning of the sentence. —i.o que mas odio es lo vioiencro (What I hate most is violence.) 2. In questions, commands, and reported speech, they usually are after the verb. _ B. Prepositional pronouns always appear after prepositions, DEMONSTRATNE FRONOUNS 1. Yo becomes mi, and It} becomes ii, after all prepositions except enire (between) and Demonstrative pronouns identify or point to specific people or things. segtin (according to): -—El vino (into es para mir‘poro ii. (The red wine is for me/for you.) ‘ Masculine E'mmm New” Mum“ .s-.. 2. When following can (with), mi and it become con + rni = conmigo and con + ti = Smgu'a‘ 95'? éS’O 95’0 _'hlS one coniigo. _ése ésa eso that one —_iur:n (tie at reorro conmigo. (Juan went to the theater with me.) aquéj aquéjja aqueljo thoj one over jhere (to, away, 3. When referring to him or her as himself or herself, the form ts 5i, usually accompa- plum, ésros ésms 98,05 'hese ones filed by mismo/cr: éso _ — m —_ii_ii‘r'o se corto er gate a 5i mismcl. (Julio cuts his hair himself.) 5 emf 9505 059 “‘95- __ It. When si is accompanied by con, the construction becomes consigo: “qUéHOS (“WEI/05 aquenos "1°59 ones OVEN there “or away) _Esrij contenro consign mismo. (She is pleased with herself.) Me gusmn 95mg autos y aquéj (I like these cars and that one over there.) ’ C. Oblect pronouns usually go before verbs. However, when used with a verb in the infini- tive, imperative, or gerund form, the object pronoun is attached to the end of the verb. 'NDEF'N'TE PRONDUNS I. When the pronoun is attached to the verb, the stress of the word changes and often needs an accent: ‘- SPARKCHARTSM‘ -_ Indefinite pronouns refer to people and things without identifying them. The most com- mon are crlgo (something/anything), nado (nothing/anything), oiguren (someone/anyone), —Come (as verduros (Eat the vegetables) becomes Cdmeios (Eat them). and m]de (no one). 3% E 2. If the infinitive or gerund is part of a compound verb, then the pronoun can go A q g before the main verb. INTERRUGATIVE PHDNOUNS E a 3. When a sentence contains both a subject and an object pronoun, the subject pro- Imerrogqflve pronouns introduce questions or queries. E noun precedes the object pronoun. o d 4. If ie/les is used together with ior’l'a. l'az'ies becomes so: So to d: (I gave it to her.) Shin!” PlUl’fli MNI'IIHQ g»; E g _ . _ >. a Summary of personal pronoun word order: que— _ ML— s _ s g 1% E . b ’Ob * DI ’ Ob a v b s _cuol cuoies which? _ _° g 5" [ad + '95-» —:w—~-Le—Ew—~E- -+— firm»:— Mgee* cuonto/a cuonfos/as how much/how mony’? % a (S (0 doy Yotelo doy. ,, , - — g o - , _ , , _ . quten qulenes who? 2 0 It give )m givtng It to you. <1 5 .. c m .9 E s i o 54:95 $7.95 CAN Verbs express action. OLLL-rrence. or stores 0! being. I. When conjugated, some verbs have stem changes for every person except first- and m =© second-person plural forms. There are four major stem-change categories in Spanish: '6 E I VEHB Moons o. e —> ie: querer. quiero, quieres, quiere, querernos, queréts. quieren 5; :3, A. Indicative: Expresses facts and actual situations o —) ue: voiver- vueivo, waives, vuelue, velvet-nos, voiveis, vuaiven E —o') . B. Sublunctive: Expresses actions that are doubtful, possible, or desirable c u —) ue: jugor: juego, juegas, juego, jugamos, jugdis. juegon § 3 ’__——g I C. imperative: Expresses orders or commands d. e —) i: pedir- pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedis, piden § ‘3 m - « _ - . :- C _ INFINITNE 2. Other verbs have a stem change in the first person stngular form only. _CD 0. C —> zc. conocer. concrch I z 3, _——Ln ; The infinitive is the basic root form ofa verb. All infinitives in Spanish end in —crr, —er. or —ir. b c 9 g; hgcer; hggo ' :0 Regular verb forms are conjugated by dropping the infinitive ending and adding whichever c. I —) lg: scrir'r soigo E ' ending corresponds to the mood, tense, and person that are being employed. d n 9 ng: porter.- poring |\ PRESENT TENBE [INDICATIVE] PRESENT PARTiCiPLE A. Used to describe: A. Equivalent to the English -ing form; used for progressive tenses with the verb estar. ‘I, Action that is happening at the moment B. Form: 2. Habitual actions 1. Verbs with infinitives ending in -ar drop -ar and add ~undo: hobior- hohlondo 3. Future aCtion when USing an adverb 0f time 2. Verbs with infinitives ending in —er and -ir drop —er and —ir and add —iando: B. Conjugation: comer, comiendo: vivir, w‘viendo. ' PRESENT _ FAST PARTICiPLE A. Used with the verb hahor to form compound tenses. Sm ulor o habio coma viva . _ _ , . , g y, . B. Can be used as an adjective, in which case it agrees in number and gender. tu habias comes vtves . . . . — . C. Also used in passtve VOIce constructions. el, ella, Ud. habit: come We D Form. P'U'U' “05mm habiflfm‘ comffms Vivi?“ . t, Verbs with infinitives ending in an drop «or and add —ado: habit-tr, liablodo. VQSO’NZS habits“ come“ WV" 2. Verbs with infinitives ending in —ar and —I'r drop —er and -ir and add -ida: comer, ellos, ellas, Uds. hobion comer: viven comjdu; vim, Vivi-do. CONTINUED ON OTHER SiDE a.) l— m < I 0 >4 m < a. U) 50495 nun— — _— — — ' Ln 8 07 co to 0'3 (0 8 m 00 to L0 to ,'_ 00 Lo 2 Y— m 00 (/3 l\ 03 SparkChorls is 0 registered trademark Printed in the USA $4.95 $7.95 CAN of SporkNotes LLC. 0 A A In .0.) o 2 i c a m >. .o N o o N O E w 'E >. a o u A Barnes & Noble Publication All rights reserved. 10 9 8 7 VERBS {continued} PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE A. Used to express action taking place exactly at the time of expression: Esloy comiendo (I am eating right now.) 8. Formed by using the appropriately conjugated form of esror in the present tense plus the present participle of the verb of action: Ello oslo lioblondofcomiendorcon- duciendo. (she is speaking/eating/driving.) FUTURE TENSE A. Used to express action that will take place in the future: El owon liegaré nior'iono. (The plane will arrive tomorrow.) B. Can also be used to express probability: ,gaue hora es? No sé, set-on los tres. (Whattime is it? I don’t know, it's probably around three.) C. Conjugation FUTURE Person -or -er -ir y, yo 7 habloré comeré _ :lwré - LE lo hablarc‘rs comerdrs vivirés é- él, ello, Ud. hobloré comeré viviro nosolros hoblorarrias comerernns viviremos g. vosolros hoblor—é-is Icorneré—is— viiairéis a ellos, ellias, Uds. hablorc'in come/on viviran D. lrregularities: 'l. A -d is added to the stem of some verbs (Iener, porter, voter, venir. solirlwhen conjugated in the future tense. This change is the same for all forms of person: tener: tendré, tendros, tundra rendmmos, rendréis, rendron 2. other verbs drop the -e from the root {(Obfir, hober, thdCr, querer, sober). Again, this change is the same for all forms of person: cober: cobré, i'obros, cobro, cobremos, cubrois, cobrdn 3. The verbs decir and hocer are irregular as follows: decir: dire, diros, dlr'o, diremos, diréis, dirc'in hacer: hare, horos, hora, itoremos, horéis, horon E. The construction ir (present tense) + o + infinitive can also be used to express actions in the future: — Voy a salir o (as tres. (I'm going to leave at three o’clock.) PAST [PHETEFIITE TENSE A. The preterite tense is used to express finished or com- plete actions that happened in the past. 8. It can also indicate an action occurring in the present that began at a specific point in the past: — - Empecé o esiudinr dyer. (I began to study yesterday.) C. Conjugation: PRETERITE Person -nr -er -ir 2% yo hobJ—e — icomi vivi If: hobloste— comista viviste ET él,ello,Ud. more comié vivid nosotros hablamos comimos vivirnos g Eofros hobiastm‘s comisteis vivisteis a; ellos,ellos, . ., - Udsl hobioron comiercn wvreron D. Irregularities: 1. When conjugated in the pretertite tense, the root vowel in the stem of some verbs changes to —u. This change is the same for all forms of person, poder; pude, pudiste, pudo, puo‘imos, pudisiois, pudierori 2. For some verbs, the root vowel changes to -i. decir: dije, o'ijr'ste, dijo, dlilmos, di'jisteis, diferon 3. For some verbs, add -uv at the end of the root. ester: estuve, estuvr'ste, esruuo, esluvimos, estt.wister's, estu-riercn 4. For some verbs, add a —i truer: Irate, Irojisle, trojo, Irojimos, rrofisreis, rroieron E. Preserving sound in the first-person preterite: 1. Since there is no :2 in Spanish. ca is always used instead: oimorzor: olmorce, t'on'ienzor romance 2. To keep the hard i: sound. change to qué. buster.- busqué; socor- sooué 3. To keep the hard 9 sound, change to gué: liegar: Iieguo, pager. pogue F. some verbs have distinct meanings in the preterite: Verb Meaning in Meaning in Present Merits conocer a to know [someone] to meet [someone] (alguienl saberlalgo) to knowlsomelhing] to find out [something] no querer {hocer algol to not want [to do something) to refuse [to do something) I IMPEFIFECT TENSE A. Expresses a past action that does not have a defined beginning or end: —Hobiobo o ins chicos en inglés (He spoke to the children in English.) B. Describes a habitual action in the past, corresponding to ‘ the English "used to"; describes people and things: —fbomos ol mismo bor todos los dies. (We used to go to the same bar every day.) ‘ —Mi obuelo era colvo. (My grandfather was bald.) C. Describes what was going on when something else happened: —Mirdbornos lo peliculn y comr'arrios polomr‘ros I cudrio‘u do reponto se opogo lo luz (We were watching the movie and eating popcorn when the electricity suddenly went out.) D. Often used with the following expressions: siernpre (always), o menudo (often), rodos (05 dies (every day), irecuentemente (frequently). E. Conjugation: I IMPERFECT | Person —ar -er —lr l Ty3_ “hag—rm ’ ’ lime. "Cl-i;— l hablobas comias vivid-s ‘3 él,ella,Ud. hablaba comic vivid nosofros habidbamos comiamos viviamos E“ vosotros hablabois comic-ls viviais a ellos, ellas, Uds. hoblaban comian Vivian F. Irregularities: ser: eru, eros, era. promos. erois. eron ir: ibo, thus, the, ibomos, ibois, ibon ver: 'reio, ‘reios, veio, veidmos, veiois, veiurt G. Imperfect progressive: The imperfect of eslor plus the present participle is used to emphasize that something was in progress when something else happened. —Estaba caminondo por el porque cuando empezo o llover (I was walking in the park when it began to rain.) l CONDITIONAL TENSE A. Expresses the English equivalent of "would" or “could”: —i'e o‘r'j'o oue ie ayudaria monono. (He told you he would help you tomorrow.) 5. Also used to give advice, for polite questions and requests, and in conditional sentences with the subjunctive: — Si wniero of conductor, iriamos oi rnusoo (II the driver came, we would go to the museum.) ‘ C. Conjugation: CONDITIONAL Person —ur -er -ir Sangulo: yo hoblon‘a comerio vivin‘o Iu hoblorias cornerias vivirias _ é), ellu, Udf hobldria comerio viviria 7 Plural nosolros hobloriomas comeriamas viviri‘umos vosolros hobluriur's comerinis vivin’ais ellos, ellos, Uds. habloriun comerian vivirian D. conjugating irregular verbs: same irregular verbs as the future tense, as the irregularity occurs in the root. l on poumo TENSES A. Present perfect 1. Uses: a Expresses the equivalent of “to have done something" :1. Expresses actions that have happened in a period of time that is not yet over c Expresses events in the past that have particular importance for the present n Whereas the preterite form emphasizes distance from the past action, the present perfect brings the action to the present: —Su obuelo ha muerfo (Her grandfather has died) instead ofSu obuelo rriurio (Her grand— father died) 2. Form: present form of hober + past participle —‘r’o he iioblodoa’comido/sofido B. Past perfect (pluperfect) I. Expresses the equivalent of "had done something”; events in the past preceded by other events 2. Form: imperfect form of hober + past participle —-‘ro hook: hobiodofcomidor’soli'do C. Preterite perfect _ ‘l. Mainly used in literary texts to express an action completed just before another past action, usually with operios (hardly, barely) 2. Form: preterite form of hober + past participle —Yo hube hobludurcornido/solido D. Future perfect 1. Expresses the equivalent of "will have done something" 2. Form: future form of hober + past participle ——‘r’o hobré hohloo‘o/comido/soildu. E. Conditional perfect I. Expresses "would have done something" —-Penso oue cuondo terminoro lo peiicula yo hobro dejodo dc ne'ror. (I thought that when the movie ended it would have stopped snowing.) 2, Form: conditional form of liober + past participle —Yo hobrio hobfodox’t‘omidofsoir'do REFLEXIVES/los REFLEX/V03 A. In reflexive verbs, the subject both performs and receives the action of the verb. B. Form: reflexive pronoun + reflexive verb —Cododiomo bond time visto. (Every dayl bathe and get dressed.) Person Reflexive Singular yo i meimyselfl in te (yourself) — E, ello, Ud. se/sflhimself/ herself) — Plural nosolros nos (ourselves) vosolros os (yourselves) — ellos, ellos, Uds. se (themselves) C. The meaning of some verbs changes in the reflexive form: nonerse (to become, to get); cnmbiorse (to get changed): oburrirse (to get bored); o'ormirse (to fall asleep); 'roiverso (to become, to turn); lrse (to go away) I SUBJUNCTIVE/e/ SUBJUNT/VO PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE A. Uses: I. To express a Wish, hope, desire, preference, sugges- tion, request, or order —Oué fengos suerte. (Good luck.) 2. After a main clause that expresses doubt. fear, joy, or other emotion —Esperu quoganemos elpreniio. (I hopewewin the prize.) 3. After certain impersonal expressions (es posible que, es probo’ofe que, es dudoso qtre, es impossible que, es necesorio que, es rnog'or que, es imporronie que, es lostimo qua) that show necessity, regret. possibil- ity, or doubt — Es importante que ilegues o tiempo (It's important that you arrive on time.) 4. After the negative form of verbs relating to knowl- edge, perception, and communication —No cred out: sea inlelrgenie. (I don’t think he’s intelligent.) 5. After expressions of intent and purpose such as pure put: (so that), o fin de que (in order that) — Vote o cocinor para que coma: motor (I'm going to cook so that you eat better.) 6. After expressions of time such as Coondo (when), fresh.) que (until), ton pronto como (as soon as), mieniros que (while) 7. After expressions of condition, exception, or concession, such as con for de que (given that), excepro que (except if), ounque (although), sin que (Without, unless), u pesur do qua (even though) — No my a solir Sin que babies r.'on And. (I’m not going to leave unless you talk to Ana.) unfinued] B. Conjugation: PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE Person _ w -ar -er —ir Singular 93mm W hable cficT" vivo to nobles comas _ viva: _él,'ello, Ud. hoble coma viva Plural nosotros hoblemos comomos vlvomos vosotros habl—éi's— comets vivéls ellos, ellos, Uds. hoblen vivan coman C. Irregularities: 'l. Verbs for which there is a consonant change in the first- person singular exhibit the same change in all persons in the present subjunctive: salir: solgo, solgos, solga, salgamos, salgais, solgan Six verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive: (dar, estor, IthE‘I, r'r, sober, and ear). For full conjuga» tions, see the Spanish Verbs SparkChart. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTNE A. Used when the main verb is in the preterite, imperfect, pluperfect, or conditional B. Conjugation: IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE Person -ar —er —ir yo hoblora comlera vlviera hablase' comiese' vlvlese' E! It) hoblaras comleras vlvieras ‘:'=_t thbloses flies_e§_ _ vflieses “ él, ello, Ud. habiara comiera vlviera hablase comlese viviese nosotros hobloramas comiéramas viviérarnos hoblésemos comiéfgn-ros viviésemas g vosotros hoblarar's comierais vivierai's E hoblosers comieseis vivleseis ellos,ellos, hoblaran comieran vwieran Uds. habloseri comiesen viviesen 'The —ra and -se endings are more or less interchangable— usage dependslon regional preference. The -ra endings are favored in Latin America, whereas the -se endings are used more often in Spain and seldom in Latin America. Adverbs modify and determine verbs, udjec'ives, or what aaverbs, A. Invarlable adverbs: Do not change in number orgender ~bien (well); maltbad, badly); muytvery): l'ejos (far), ayer (yesterday) PHEPOSITIONS Prepositions ;oiri wiin L15" objeczs "tours or pronouns) IL) s'arr‘r! phrases. a to, at, on _ hocia toward ante before, infronl of hasta until b—ajo below, underneath no obstunle nevertheless (on with para for, in order to contra against _p_or__ for, because of— Tie of, from salvo __ exgept Esde from, since, for segt‘m according to duranle- during sin without en on, inside, at, into sabre oniobove entre between rra_s_ __ behind _ excepts: except - EXPRESSIONS OF DURATION AND TIME A. To express duration: 1. l-lacer in present or imperfect + amount of time + qua + present or imperfect tense of the verb —-l~laco armies queirabajooqui (I've worked here for one month.) —t-lar_'ia on mes qae trabojaba ah) Luanda me dESpldlE'rOn. (I had been working there for one month when they fired me.) 2, Present tense ofverb r desde trace l amount of time errabajo oquf desde hate on mes (I’ve worked here for one month.) 3. Lieyor in present, imperfect, or preterite + amount of time — present participle —Llevo on mes lrabajando ago). (I’ve been work- ing here for one month.) COMPOUND SUBJUNCTIVE TENSES I A. Present perfect subjunctive ‘I. Used like the present subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause is viewed as completed . Form: present subjunctive form of haber + past I participle: 7No creo que hora hablado con Ana esl'e or‘to (I don’t think I've talked to Ana this year.) B. Past perfect subjunctive ‘l. 2. Used like the imperfect subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause was com- pleted before another action took place Form: past subjunctive form of hatter + past participle: — No pensaba que hubieras hablado can Ana antes quo yo (I didn't think you had talked to Ana before I did.) IMPERATIVE/e/ IMPEHAT/VO A. Expresses commands B. Used in the second person and in the first-person collective inosoiros, as the English equivalent of "|et’s”) I . In second-person formal, affirmative and negative forms are the same 2. In second-person familiar, affirmative and negative forms are different Person Pronoun -ar -er, -ir '2 singular usted (Ud.) lno) habis (no) viva -:!.orma'tl ‘2 plural ustedes (no) hobtan (no) vivan jtnrmall (Uds.) 2 singular to hobl‘a vive llamiliarl no hobtes no vivas 2 plural vosotros hoblod corned,- vivid Ilnmiliarl no hobtéis no com-fills,- no vlwiis I plural nosotros (no) habtemas (no) vivumas C. Note that affirmative forms for ncsotros, vosotros, Ud., and Lids, as well as all negative forms, are the same as the present subjunctive tense. B. Adverbs of manner: Add -mente to the feminine sinv gular adjective A. Ma 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 T 'I. 2. 3 4 5 — lento (slow): lentomente (slowly) v tacit (easy): tacilmente (easily) ny verbs are used along with prepositions: a.- empezar a (to begin to), ir a (to go to), aprender a (to learn to), ponerse a (to begin to) con: cantor can (to count on), sonar con (to dream about), quedorse con (to keep) do: acabar ale (to have just [done somethingl), dejor ale (to stop [doing somethingl), olvr‘darse ale (to for- get about), Iroiar de (to try to) en.- Insistir an to (insist on), lardercn (to take one's time doing), pensor on (to think about) por: preocuporse por (to worry about) he preposition par has many meanings and uses: "For, because of": Brazil es conocida por sus players. Denoting time or duration: Voy a leer par Ltt‘lCl' hora. . "Through": Ilene gee ir par la puerto. . "Around": El restaurante estc'r par CIun . “By means of": Escrfbame por email OTHER OONSTRUOTIONS/ TRASE TFI‘UCTURAS ' I —Ello llemba un mes trabajando cuando so too. (She’d been working for a month when she quit.) B. To express "ago": Preterite form of verb + trace + amount of time —Llegue hace on mes. (I arrived one month ago.) C. To express "since": Present perfect of verb + deso‘e + point in time — He lrabaj'ado aqai desde enero (I've worked here since January.) NEGATION no no, none rti nor jamas never ever nunca never noda nothing naoie _ nobody mnguna none, no one larnpoco not either SPECIAL VERBS/ los VEFtBOS ESPECIALES SER AND ESTAR Ser and estor both correspond to the English verb "to be," but they have distinct uses. A. Set Expresses identity Describes essential traits of a person, object, or animal Expresses profession Describes nationality, origin, material, or possession when followed by the preposition cle Expresses location of events, meaning "to take place": —Lo fiesta es E'l"| el resiouronte a. Tells the time and date: ~Son las dos y media. 55 sepliembre. T. Forms the passive voice: —El libro foe escrizo par Cervantes. B. Forms impersonal expressions: —Es Enters-sortie. B. Estor 1. Expresses location 2. Expresses a temporary state or condition: —Ana esta teliz (Ana is happy.) —.Iuon astc'l gordo. (Juan is fat right now.) 3. Forms the progressive tenses: —-Ella esté estudiando espanol 4. Used with the adjectives rolo (broken) and muerlo (dead) because they are the result of change GUSTAFI A. Translates as "to be pleasing" B. Used mainly in the third-person singular or plural C. Form: personal object pronoun + form of gusior + noun or infinitive: —Me gusto tacar la goltarra. —l'.e guston los gotos. «Nos gusto la nieve D. some other verbs use the same syntax as gustor. alegrar (to make happy), (later (to hurt), encartlar (to really like), _ tailor (to miss), inleresar (to find interesting), importer (to find important), molestor (to bother), parecer (to seem) ' Peer S” { 'SPARKCHARTSM‘ -_ IADVERBS/los ADVERBIOS C. Position: I. Adverbs follow the verb they modify: Ella mnneja ropidamente. (She drives quickly.) 2. Adverbs precede the adjective they modify: El gato as may gordo (The cat is very fat.) PR POSITIONS and OONJU O'HONS/los PREPOSICIONES y [as CDNJUNCIUNES 6. Rate, price, speed, per, in exchange: Pagué demaslado por el sombrero. C. Uses of the preposition poro (compared to par): 1. "For, in order to" (intention, purpose, destination, direction): Estudio macho poro eniender blen, ’ 2. The use of something: to tinla es para la plumo . D. The personal 0.- Spanish requires an a before a direct ' object that refers to a person: Voy a visitor a mi Iia. Conlunctions join phrases, clauses, or other words. We and sino but rather E of neither, nor qua that E 'in _ '_or _ porque "because —_ E pero but pues as 3 excepto, menos, salvo with the exception of 0‘ Note: In Spanish, if a negative follows a verb, a negative must precede the verb: —No aLIiero noda (I don’t want anything.) —fl etla no le gusto nadle. (She doesn’t like anyone.) SUFFIXES Endings that can be added to a word to modify its meaning. They can refer to size, emotion, affection, and intensity, Augmentative big, great, very —on ricocltan [very wealthy person) —ote grarrdote (very big) very, extremely —isimo bellisimo (very beautiful) VDii'nin'utive m _ fl h W I _ _ A _ _ . V 7 _ _ _ _ w MWW__ Ell, little w—ira/o, —:r'rora chramro [very small) corazoncilo (little heart) alto/a, {more Juancllta llittle Juan, dear Juan) wwspa rlrnotesxomr'ormrs Series Editor: Sarah Friedberg, Matt Blanchard Writers: Alexa de los Reyes, Dennis M. Quinio Designer: Dan 0. Williams $4.95 $7.95 CAN ...
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Spanish Spark Charts - Spanish Grammar - SPAR KCHAFI'I...

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