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Review_Exam1 - Key Organic Functional Groups Organic...

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1 Organic Functional Groups - you must know these They will show up time and time again in Biochemistry Note that the charge state of some of the groups above will be different under physiological conditions (COOH; COO-) Key Organic Functional Groups
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2 •All modern organisms are based on the same morphological unit, the cell •Prokaryotes – lack a nucleus (e.g., bacteria) •Eukaryotes – membrane enclosed nucleus encapsulating their DNA •Viruses are not cells and are not living since they lack the apparatus to reproduce outside of their host cells •Prokaryotes range in size from 1 to 10 μ M •Eukaryotes range in size from 10 to 100 μ M and thus have a thousand to a million times as much volume as a prokaryotic cell Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
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3 How do organisms evolve? 1. Evolution is not directed toward a particular goal. It proceeds via random changes. Organisms that are better suited to their environment flourish. 2. Evolution requires some built-in sloppiness. This is the source of the “random changes”. It allows for adjustment to unforeseen changes in the environment. 3. Evolution is constrained by its past. The new arises from the old. 4. Evolution is ongoing. Not always toward increasing complexity.
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