Review_Exam1 - Key Organic Functional Groups Organic Functional Groups you must know these They will show up time and time again in Biochemistry

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1 • Organic Functional Groups - you must know these • They will show up time and time again in Biochemistry • Note that the charge state of some of the groups above will be different under physiological conditions (COOH; COO-) Key Organic Functional Groups
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2 •All modern organisms are based on the same morphological unit, the cell •Prokaryotes – lack a nucleus (e.g., bacteria) •Eukaryotes – membrane enclosed nucleus encapsulating their DNA •Viruses are not cells and are not living since they lack the apparatus to reproduce outside of their host cells •Prokaryotes range in size from 1 to 10 μ M •Eukaryotes range in size from 10 to 100 μ M and thus have a thousand to a million times as much volume as a prokaryotic cell Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
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3 How do organisms evolve? 1. Evolution is not directed toward a particular goal. It proceeds via random changes. Organisms that are better suited to their environment flourish. 2. Evolution requires some built-in sloppiness. This is the source of the “random changes”. It allows for adjustment to unforeseen changes in the environment. 3. Evolution is constrained by its past. The new arises from the old. 4. Evolution is ongoing. Not always toward increasing complexity.
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4 Physical Units of Space, Time, and Energy . LENGTH You must know this and be comfortable using them. Length is very important!! •C - C bond is 1.54 Å •Hemoglobin 65Å •Ribosomes 300Å •Viruses 100 - 1000Å •Cells 7 μ m or 7 x 10 4 Å (70,000 Å) 10Å 100Å 1000Å 10 4 Å1 0 5 Å 10 -10 m 10 -9 m 10 -8 m 10 -7 m 10 -6 m 10 -5 m Limit of a light microscope = 2000 Å or 0.2 μ m 1 Å 10 4 Å knowledge comes from X-ray crystallography, electron microscope or atomic force microscope
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5 Life is in constant flux Substrates Products 10 -3 sec - milli sec (ms) Unwinding of DNA 10 -6 sec - micro sec ( μ s) 10 -15 s 10 -12 s 10 -9 s 10 -8 s 10 -6 s 10 -3 s 10 s 10 3 s femto pico nano micro milli sec •femto, fs excitation of chlorophyll •pico, ps charge separation in photosynthesis •nano, ns hinge protein action •10 -8 (10 ns) fluorescence lifetime •micro, μ s DNA unwind •milli, ms enzymatic reactions •10 3 s generation of bacteria •2.3 x 10 9 s average human life span
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6 Energy Ultimate source of energy is the sun E = h ν 57 kcal/mol of photons green light or 238.k kJ/mol 1 kcal = 4.184 kJoules 0.239 kcal = 1 kJ You must know how to convert between the two. (We will be using (kJ/mol)) ATP energy carrier, for hydrolysis to ADP + Pi = 7.3 kcal/mol or 30.5 kJ/mol While vibrational energy infrared = 0.6 kcal/mol or 2.5 kJ/mol C - C bond = 83 kcal/mol or 348 kJ/mol the framework of a carbon skeleton is thermally stable but non-covalent bonds are only a few kcal/mol
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7 Thermodynamics – First Law • The First Law of Thermodynamics ¾ Energy (U) is conserved – it can be neither created nor destroyed • Most biological processes take place under constant pressure (P) and variable volume (V) • The Enthalpy (H) of a process is defined as follows: ¾ H = U + PV ¾ Δ H = Δ U + P Δ V (under constant pressure, the volume will change – like the expansion of a gas) The volume changes in biological processes are practically negligible so ¾ Δ H Δ U
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BIOL 3324 taught by Professor Ziburkus during the Spring '07 term at University of Houston.

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Review_Exam1 - Key Organic Functional Groups Organic Functional Groups you must know these They will show up time and time again in Biochemistry

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