I Culture and Society in a Changing World
Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that
pass from one generation to the next in society. Society or culture could not exist without
- biological and genetic makeup.
- social environment.
-Tool kit- Sociologist
says that culture is a "tool kit of symbols, stories,
rituals, and world views, which people use to solve different problems."
A. Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture
-Material Culture- is physical or tangible creations that members of a society make,
use, and share. Items of material culture begin with
or resources such
as ore, trees, and oil. Through technology raw materials are turned into usable items.
- knowledge, techniques, and tools that people transform resources
into usable forms and the knowledge to use them.
-Nonmaterial Culture-Abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence
people's behavior, such as language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns,
and political systems.
B. Cultural Universals
-Cultural Universals- Anthropologist George Murdock made a list of cultural
universals, which included categories of appearanc
e (bodily adornments and
(sports, dancing, games, joking, and visiting), social institutions
(family, law, and religion), and customary practices
(cooking, folklore, gift giving,
Dominant cultural patterns: