Chapter 2, Culture - Chapter 2 Culture I Culture and...

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Chapter 2 Culture I Culture and Society in a Changing World Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that pass from one generation to the next in society. Society or culture could not exist without the other. Nature - biological and genetic makeup. Nurture - social environment. -Tool kit- Sociologist Ann Swidler says that culture is a "tool kit of symbols, stories, rituals, and world views, which people use to solve different problems." A. Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture -Material Culture- is physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share. Items of material culture begin with raw materials or resources such as ore, trees, and oil. Through technology raw materials are turned into usable items. Technology - knowledge, techniques, and tools that people transform resources into usable forms and the knowledge to use them. -Nonmaterial Culture-Abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people's behavior, such as language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns, and political systems. (Hand gestures) B. Cultural Universals -Cultural Universals- Anthropologist George Murdock made a list of cultural universals, which included categories of appearanc e (bodily adornments and hairstyles), activities (sports, dancing, games, joking, and visiting), social institutions (family, law, and religion), and customary practices (cooking, folklore, gift giving, and hospitality) Dominant cultural patterns: 1
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II Components of Culture All cultures have four nonmaterial cultural components. A. Symbols -symbol- anything that meaningfully represents something else. Ex. Love, peace hate, sirens, brand logos, etc. Flags - patrtriotism Ethnicity - Black, White (people are not actually these colors). B. Language -Language-a set of symbols that express ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. -Sapir-Whorf hypothesis- a linguist hypothesized that shapes the view of reality of its speakers. -Language and gender- language can be seen as ignoring women by using masculine forms to refer to human beings, example: mankind, policeman etc.
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