Deuterostome_Carothers - Clade Deuterostomia 1a...

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Deuterostome Cladogram (Ambulacraria) & Chordata Three “Phyla”: Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata Echinodermata + Hemichordata Cephalochordata Urochordata Vertebrata + (Ambulacraria) Chordata Clade Deuterostomia 1a
Deuterostome Cladogram Name G , a major deuterostome clade. - e.c.: Name the other ( F ) Name the clade each letter represents - which letters are interchangeable? Now draw and label the cladogram from memory. B A C D E (F) 1a G MASTERY QUESTIONS
Deuterostome Synapomorphies *Simakov et al. 2015. Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins. Nature 527 , 459–465 Acorn Worm gill slits Acorn Worms , Phylum Hemichordata , are burrowing marine filter feeders 1. Gill slits : one of 2 morphological synapomorphies. What’s the other? For respiration & filter feeding Arose in 500 myo common ancestor likely resembled this acorn worm, a basal clade. (coded for by pax1/9 gene, one of many orthologous deuterostome genes*) (70% of acorn worm genes have orthologs in us humans!) Clade Deuterostomia 1b
Deuterostome Synapomorphies 1b Name 2 deuterostome synapomorphies & 2 functions of one of them. Provide the common and phylum name of a basal deuterostome MASTERY QUESTIONS
Echinoderm Cladogram Feather stars : colorful crinoids of coral & rock reefs that can swim. Sea lilies : stalked crinoids with an extensive fossil record Crinoids , basal echinoderms, are distinguished by an upward-facing mouth. They filter feed with tube feet. Asteroidea Crinoidea Ophiuroidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea E c h i n o d e r m a t a “Phylum” Echinodermata Crinoidea 1c
Echinoderm Cladogram B A C D E 1c Name the clade each letter represents - which clade is basal? Name the basal clade. - Name and describe its two members. - What synapomorphy defines it? Now draw and label the cladogram from memory. MASTERY QUESTIONS
Echinoderm Synapomorphies 1. “Spiny skin” with exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate plates called ossicles - see sea urchin lamp 2. Water vascular system with tube feet for feeding and/or moving 3. 5-part radial symmetry - in arms AND rows of tube feet “Phylum” Echinodermata 1d
1d Describe the body surface of echinoderms - what new vocabulary terms did you use? Describe a unique organ system of echinoderms - what new vocabulary terms did you use? Describe the body plan of echinoderms MASTERY QUESTIONS Echinoderm Synapomorphies
Clades within “Phylum” Echinodermata Sea Stars 1.Extrude stomach to externally digest prey 2.Arms contain guts and gonads Walk with tube feet that have suckers at tips Respire using external “gills” Asteroidea Ophiuroidea 2a
Sea Stars 2a MASTERY QUESTIONS MASTERY QUESTIONS Describe their two synapomorphies - e.c.: What is their clade name? - e.c. What is the name of their sister clade?

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