Midterm_3_Study_Guide

Midterm_3_Study_Guide - Geography Landscapes & Water...

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Midterm 3 Study Guide  15/11/2007 14:25:00 Main Uses of water in US:  48% Thermoelectric power generation  34% Irrigation  11% public supply  5% Industrial  Less than 1% each- domestic wells, livestock, mining, aquaculture  o Aquaculture: the cultivation of aquatic plants for food It takes 37-54 gallons of water to produce 1 KwH (kilowatt hour) of electricity,  which is enough to run a clothes dryer for 30 minutes Fresh water accounts for 2.5% of water on Earth Earth’s largest fresh water reservoirs: 3  km 3   Groundwater 23,400 x 10 3  km 3 Evapo-transpiration: evaporation from surfaces and transpiration from plants  Transpiration: the water released from plants due to respiration as well as  passive transfer of water up from roots and out through stomata  Important source of water to the land surface: over half of rain and snowfall  on land has been recycled at least once on land  Higher rates here because of low humidity, high wind, hot summers Residence time Residence time= volume of reservoir                                         Flow rate in or out  Has units of time, can be thought of as time it takes to fill an empty reservoir,  or average time a parcel of water will spend in the reservoir 
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Residence times for primary reservoirs of water: o Water in the atmosphere: 0.025 yr. or 9.5 days  o Water in rivers: 0.044 yr. or 16 days  o Groundwater: 775 yr. Non-renewable reservoir: ground water is considered a non-renewable  reservoir because it is such a large reservoir and the residence time is so  long o Volume, flux, and residence time should be evaluated for each  particular case, to determine whether a particular groundwater aquifer  is renewable or not Water Scarcity Index (Rws) The ratio of water withdrawn for human use divided by the renewable water  available for human use   Rws= W-S       Rws: water scarcity index                Q        W: total water withdrawn for human use S: amount of fresh water produced by desalination for human use  Q: the available fresh water—runoff  If Rws is greater that 0.4 then the region is highly stressed  o Colorado is considered highly water stressed  Watershed: (or drainage basin or catchment) the entire land surface that drains  to a point along a river, any precipitation that falls in the watershed can potentially flow  out the river, any precipitation that falls outside a watershed cannot contribute to  streamflow within the watershed 
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2008 for the course GEOG 1011 taught by Professor Anderson,s during the Fall '07 term at Colorado.

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Midterm_3_Study_Guide - Geography Landscapes & Water...

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