Midterm_Study_Guide - Midterm Study Guide Modern American...

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Midterm Study Guide Modern American Environmentalism: “Third Wave”-use of the term “the environment”- reaction to WWII changes-urban pollution issues-broadened constituency to women & different races-1960’s & 70’s-domestic environmental events, pollution related-oil shortages price increases depletion of natural resources-famine-first earth day 1970 landmark of the emergence of a new way of thinking Environmental Ethics: the application of ethical standards to environmental questions-the application of ethical standards to relationships between human and nonhuman entities- EX. Does the present generation have an obligation to conserve resources for future generations? If so, how should this influence our decision making, and how much are we obligated to sacrifice? Relativists: believe ethics should be specific to different cultures and ideals Universalists: believe ethics should be universal, disregarding culture and ideals John Muir: believed nature deserves to exist for own sake, regardless of degree of usefulness to humans-ecocentric- Muir vs. Pinchot about Hetch Hetchy Dam, Muir was against the dam because it would sacrifice a wetland, Pinchot in favor of dam beause he believes the result will be more beneficial than what was previously there Gifford Pinchot: Suggested “wise use” to Theodore Roosevelt resulting in the start up of the first forest service-anthropocentric Thomas Malthus: 1798 essay on the principle of population basic argument: food supply increases arithmetically (linearly) while population increase exponentially, therefore we will run out of food and the population will crash through starvation, famine, pestilence & war-against providing aid to the poor-influenced Paul Ehrlich-his beliefs were flawed/incorrect, because he never saw the green revolution Garrett Hardin: The Tragedy of the Commons- people have self important wants and needs Paul Ehrlich: The Population Bomb-1968-neo-malthusian John Locke: 1690-Anthropocentric-believes nature service no purpose unless humans
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Midterm_Study_Guide - Midterm Study Guide Modern American...

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