Chapter 18 collective action - Chapter 18 collective action...

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Chapter 18 collective action, social movements, and social change Collective action: what is it good for o Action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation o Must act as part of a group and against the expected social norms of the situation o Two major types of collective action Crowd collective action Must be face to face with the other members of your group Collective action Can also occur when people aren’t physically together Theories of collective action o Convergence theory: theory of collective action stating that collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather in the same place This theory doesn’t explain the inconsistency of group action Also that it is often reduced to the sum of its parts o Contagion Theory Theory of collective action calming that collective action arises because of peoples tendency to conform to the behavior of others with whom they are in close contact with Close to the idea of the spread a disease Peer pressure to conform to the rest of the group, like a domino effect Its contagious especially with a charismatic leader However, the theory helps explain how collective actions spreads from one person throughout the entire group, but it down plays the individuals in the group treating them like mindless sheep. o It also doesn’t explain the inconsistency, why do some members follow the group but others don’t. o Emergent norm theory Theory of collective action emphasizing the influences of keynotes in promoting particular norms Keynoters are not the same as leaders. o They can just people whose actions become, either intentionally or not the behavior copied by an entire group o They don’t have to be in charge but can be anyone from whom other people take cues in a given context. o They are the first people to knock down the first domino o Behaviors to set the standard Once again doesn’t explain the same shit like before. o Value-added theory Explains how social movements increase in value in a series of progressive stages
Establishes 6 conditions that are required for a movement to coalesce and achieve a successful outcome o 1 st there must be a social strain present that existing power holders are unable or unwilling to alleviate o 2 nd folks must be able to agree on a definition of the problem o 3 rd folks must be free to act on their grievance. The ability to act and not just be aware of the problem o 4 th there must be a spark that ignites the controversy o 5 th mobilization for action folks need to father together in an organized fashion o 6 th failure of social control by established power holders Identity and collective action o The definition of who you are o Your uniqueness and individuality comes from being a part of so many different groups.

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