Chemistry Notes - August 23, 2006 (1.1-1.7)

Chemistry Notes - August 23, 2006 (1.1-1.7) - Section 1.1...

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August 23, 2006 Section 1.1 through 1.7 (Chang) Section 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, and 1.2.4 (Thinkwell) Section 1.1 Chemistry – The study of matter and the changes it undergoes. The “central science” Modern foundations in the 19 th century, with advances in technology Health and Medicine Three major advances in the past century have enabled us to prevent and treat diseases: o Public health measures to protect from infectious disease o Surgery with anesthesia o Introduction of vaccinations and antibiotics to prevent infectious diseases spread by microbes Gene therapy – possible fourth advance In gene therapy, a healthy gene is delivered to a patient’s cell to cure or ease a disorder. Energy and Environment Energy is a by-product of many chemical processes Major sources of energy are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas. Estimated reserves of these fuels will only last another 50-100 years Solar energy – promising for the future Each year the earth receives 10x more energy from sunlight than contained in all reserves of coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium combined Solar energy can be harnessed effectively in 2 ways: o Conversion of sunlight directly into electricity using devices called photovoltaic cells o Use sunlight to obtain hydrogen from water, which can then be fed into a fuel cell to generate electricity By 2050 it is predicted that solar energy will produce 50% of our energy needs Nuclear fission: environmental concerns about radioactive waste inhibit the future of its use Nuclear fusion: the sun uses and produces nearly no waste products. In the next 50 years, will become a large energy source. Disadvantage to fossil fuels: Carbon Dioxide emissions, greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides: acid rain and smog Materials and Technology
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Polymers (rubber, nylon) Ceramics (cookware) Liquid crystals (electronic displays) Adhesives (post-it notes) Coatings (latex paint) In the future: room temperature super-conductors - no energy loss (as opposed to the 20% loss in copper cables) High temperature superconductors being applied on MRIs, levitated trains, and nuclear fusion Computer: shaped our lives more than any other advancement Microprocessor – tiny silicon chip inspired countless inventions: laptops, fax machines Speed which the microprocessor carries out mathematical operations. Doubled in speed every 18 months Speed depends on purity of silicon chip Molecular computing – molecules replace silicon, and respond to light rather than electrons in some cases, making optical computers rather than electronic.
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