Chemistry Notes - November 1

Chemistry Notes - November 1 - To determine their relative...

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Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) – the nuclear charge felt by an electron Zeff = z - ∂ The various degrees of shielding: Electrons are shielded very effectively by electrons in subshells closer to the nucleus. Electrons in the same shell are only shielded a little bit (in comparison) by other electrons in the shell. Electrons farther away from the nucleus do not shield electrons which are closer to the nucleus Atomic radius – one half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent metal atoms. Atoms are always larger than the cations they form. o Because they have less shielding Anion is always larger than the atom Radii of Isoelectronic Series o Same electron configuration
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Unformatted text preview: To determine their relative sizes, lets once again look at the number of electrons and protons For example, s2-, cl-, k+, ca2+ Which of the following is isoelectronic with F- and has a smaller radius than F-? o F o O2-o Na+ o Cl- Ionization energy the minimum energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state. This is always positive in value This is a measure of how tightly the electrons are held in the atom. First ionization energy (I1) is the energy to remove the first electron. 2 nd ionization energy (I2) is the energy to remove the second electron. Which would require more energy? The 2 nd...
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