Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 GASES 1 CONTENT 10.1 Characteristics of Gases 10.2 Pressure 10.3 The Gas Laws 10.4 The Ideal-Gas Equation 10.5 Further

Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 GASES 1 CONTENT 10.1...

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1 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 10 GASES GASES
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2 CONTENT 10.1 Characteristics of Gases 10.2 Pressure 10.3 The Gas Laws 10.4 The Ideal-Gas Equation 10.5 Further Applications of The Ideal Gas Equation 10.6 Gas Mixture and Partial Pressures 10.7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory 10.8 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion 10.9 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behaviour
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3 Learning Outcomes Able to apply the Ideal Gas Law in calculations involving gaseous system Able to calculate partial and total pressure in a mixture of gases (with or without reaction) Able to differentiate effusion and diffusion Able to apply kinetic molecular theory in problem solving
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4 Bonds HGFGJDF
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5 10.1 Characteristics of 10.1 Characteristics of Gases Gases Expand spontaneously to fill its container. Volume of gas = Volume of the container. Highly compressible. Form homogeneous mixtures with other gases. Occupy about 0.1% of the volume of their containers.
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6 10.2 Pressure 10.2 Pressure Measured properties of a gas: Temperature (T), Volume (V), Pressure (P) Pressure, P is the force F acting on an object per unit area, A. P = F/A Our atmosphere exerts a downward force/pressure on Earth’s surface because of gravity.
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7 10.2.1 Atmospheric 10.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure and The Pressure and The Barometer Barometer The acceleration produced by earth’s gravity is 9.8 ms -2 . A column of air 1m 2 in cross section has a mass of roughly 10,000 kg. The force exerted by this column is: F = ma where, a = 9.8 m/s 2 = (10,000 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 ) = 1 10 5 kg m/s 2 = 1 10 5 N
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8 Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure and The Pressure and The Barometer Barometer The pressure exerted by the column is the force divided by its cross-sectional area, A: P = F/A = (1 10 5 N)/( 1m 2 ) = 1 10 5 N/m 2 = 1 10 5 Pa = 1 10 2 kPa SI unit for P = N/m 2 (also called Pascal, Pa) 1Pa = 1 N/m 2 1 bar = 10 5 Pa
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9 Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure and The Pressure and The Barometer Barometer Therefore, the atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 100kPa. The actual atmospheric pressure at any location depends on weather conditions and on altitude. Atmospheric pressure can be measured by a mercury barometer.
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10 Bonds HGFGJDF
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11 Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Con’t: 10.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure and The Pressure and The Barometer Barometer Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support a column of mercury 760 mm in height. Units: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1.01325 10 5 Pa SI units: 1 atm = 1.01325 10 5 Pa Other common units 1 atm = 14.70 psi
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12 Bonds HGFGJDF
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13 Example 1 Example 1 Convert 0.378 atm to: a) torr; b) pascal (1atm = 760 torrs = 101325 Pa) torr atm torr atm 271 1 760 357 . 0 Pa atm Pa atm 36173 1 101325 357 . 0
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14 10.2.2 Pressure of Enclosed 10.2.2 Pressure of Enclosed Gases and Manometers Gases and Manometers Closed-tube manometer measures pressure below atmospheric pressure.
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