Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13(16 ACID BASE EQUILIBRIA Contents Definition of Acid and Base Arrhenius Brnsted-Lowry conjugate acid-base pairs Lewis Strength of

Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13(16 ACID BASE EQUILIBRIA Contents...

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CHAPTER 13(16) ACID BASE EQUILIBRIA
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Contents Contents Definition of Acid and Base : Arrhenius Br ø nsted-Lowry , conjugate acid-base pairs Lewis Strength of Acid and Base : Strong acid weak acid Strong base weak base Ionization of Acid and Base Concepts of pH, pOH, pK a , pK b Dissociation Constant : K a , K b , K w
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Learning Outcomes Able to differentiate and calculate acid dissociation constants for weak and strong acids (applicable to bases) Calculate pH and pOH
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Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius base contains significant OH - ion Arrhenius acid never contains H + ion, instead it contains H atom covalently bonded that ionize in water E.g: Arrhenius acid HCl, HNO 3 , HCN E.g: Arrhenius base NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH) 2 Acid a substance that contains hydrogen and dissociates(ionizes) in water to yield H 3 O + Base a substance that contains the hydroxyl group and dissociates in water to yield OH -
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Whenever an acid dissociates (ionizes) in water, solvent molecules participate in the reaction HA (g or aq) + H 2 O(l) A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The H 3 O + is called hydronium ion The terms hydrogen ion = proton = H + are used interchangeably Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius Definition
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Strong acids: dissociate/ionize completely into ions in water. Eg:HNO 3 (aq)+ H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) Weak acids: dissociate/ionize very slightly into ions in water. Eg: HCN(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + CN - (aq) This classification correlates with classification of electrolytes: strong electrolytes dissociate/ionize completely, and weak electrolytes dissociate/ionize partially. Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius Definition
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Br Br ø ø nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition Acid proton donor . Any species that donates an H + such as HCl, HNO 3 , H 3 PO 4 All Arrhenius acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids Base proton acceptor. Any species that accepts an H + , must contain lone pair of electrons to bind the H + , such as NH 3 , CO 3 2- , F - and OH - Brønsted-Lowry bases are not Arrhenius bases, but all Arrhenius bases contain Brønsted-Lowry base OH - . -
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HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) HCl acts as a Brø nsted-Lowry acid ( it donates a proton to H 2 O) H 2 O acts as a Brø nsted-Lowry base ( it accepts a proton from HCl) Br Br ø ø nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition
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NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) +OH - (aq) H 2 O acts as an acid, it donates the H + NH 3 acts as a base, it accepts H + . Thus, H 2 O is ampotheric : it acts as a base in one case and as an acid in the other. Br Br ø ø nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition
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NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) +OH - (aq) Br Br ø ø nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition
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Example Example Determine acid and base in the following reactions: 1. HCO 3 - (aq) + HF (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + F - (aq) 2. HCO 3 - (aq) + OH - (aq) CO 3 2- (aq) + H 2 O (aq) 3. SO 3 2- (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) HSO 3 - (aq) + NH 3 (aq) 4. HSO 3 - (aq) + NH 3 (aq) SO 3 2- (aq) + NH 4 + (aq)
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  • Spring '09
  • RobertKirshner
  • pH, Acids, NH3, Acid-base chemistry

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