Chapter 4 - CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY 1 CONTENTS 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions 4.2 Precipitation Reactions 4.3

Chapter 4 - CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS SOLUTION...

This preview shows page 1 - 15 out of 125 pages.

1 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS & SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY
Image of page 1
2 CONTENTS 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions 4.2 Precipitation Reactions 4.3 Acid-Base Reactions 4.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.5 Concentrations of Solutions 4.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
Image of page 2
3 Learning Outcomes Able to identify types of metathesis reaction Able to determine the precipitate forms in a reaction Able to calculate oxidation number of element and identify the oxidizing agent in a redox reaction Able to calculate unknown concentration in a titration of acid-base solutions (reaction).
Image of page 3
4 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture. Contains: a solvent (greater quantity) and solute(s). Solvent - substance in the mixture which acts as the dissolving medium. Whatever else is dissolved in the solution is called the solute(s) .
Image of page 4
5 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions E.g. NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) NaCl (aq) solute solvent aqueous solution Solution in which water is the dissolving medium are called aqueous solutions .
Image of page 5
6 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions All aqueous solutions can be classified in terms of its electrical conductivity. Solution conducts electricity: forms ions in solution is an electrolyte . e.g. NaCl (an ionic compound ) # conducts electricity well: strong electrolyte (NaCl) # conducts electricity poorly: weak electrolytes (CH 3 COOH)
Image of page 6
7 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties o Aqueous Solutions Solution does not conduct electricity does not form ions in solution is a non electrolyte e.g. sugar (a molecular compound)
Image of page 7
8 4.1.1 Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic compounds dissolve in water, dissociate into anions and cations. The solid no longer exists as a well ordered arrangement, each ion is surrounded by water molecules . The ions are dispersed uniformly throughout the solution. The relative concentrations of the ions depend on the chemical formula of the compound. (Sec: 4.5.2)
Image of page 8
» H 2 O 9
Image of page 9
10
Image of page 10
11 4.1.2 Molecular Compounds in Water • Molecular compounds (e.g. CH 3 OH, sugar etc.) dissolve and exist as dispersed molecules throughout the solution. The structural integrity of the compound is maintained. Does not form ions – no ions to conduct electricity. they are non-electrolytes
Image of page 11
NaCl in water 12
Image of page 12
13 Con’t: 4.1.2 Molecular Compounds in Water Some important exceptions: NH 3 dissolves in water to form NH 4 + and OH - HCl (g) in water ionizes to form H + and Cl -
Image of page 13
14 4.1.3 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Electrolyte: any substance whose aqueous solution contains ions that conduct electricity. Strong electrolytes - ionize 100 % in a solvent. E.g. (i) Most ionic compounds (salt) (ii) Strong acids and bases: HCl, HBr, HClO 4 A single arrow ( ): ionization of strong electrolytes.
Image of page 14
Image of page 15

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 125 pages?

  • Spring '09
  • RobertKirshner
  • Chemistry, Chemical reaction

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes