Caffeine (31 Jan, Lecture 7)
Other side notes: article about stroke patients who were able to stop smoking permanently. The insula damage is believed to have been
able to stop the addictive urges.
Other patients with no damage to insula were not as successful.
Insula could play a role in the
addictive urges in the brain.
There a lot of specific areas of the brain that carries out specific functions.
The gray layer consists of cell bodies, and the white area is
axons. Brain is connected to the spinal cord.
The most common source is coffee.
There is a dispute at when caffeine was actually discovered but is believed to be somewhere
around 600 or 700 A.D. The movement of coffee beans from the coffee trees has an amazing history.
They’re are two main types of coffee trees, the Arabica beget (the better bean), and the Robusta tree (harsher bean). The balance is
Arabica 70% and the Robusta 30%. Grown almost entirely on the equatorial region since tree cannot tolerate frost.
It is usually grown
in the higher elevations (two or three thousand feet).
The early Arab traders found in Ethiopia (East Africa), from Arabia, it spread to other parts of the world.
Coffee found its way to
India then from Constantinople (Istanbul), coffee was traded first to Venice, and from they’re to the rest of Europe.
English traders cultivated coffee in the East Indies, including “Java.”
The slow spread of Coffee was due to the fact that the traders wanted to protect it as their own resource. King Louis the fourth in the
1700’s wanted a coffee tree so badly that he got it and planted in a green house. From that tree, went to the Caribbean then to Mexico.
Growing and Roasting
The growing, roasting, and harvesting, drying, sorting, and roasting of coffee beans is both science and art much like grapes and wine.
Everyday alchemy (the ancient chemist), coffee roasting cooks its golden flavor from a bland bean, so the roasting is key. Unroasted
beans boast all of coffee’s acids, proteins, and caffeine (the active ingredient) but none of its taste. It takes heat to spark the chemical
reactions that turn carbohydrate like sugars and fats into aromatic oils, burn off moisture and carbon dioxide and ultimately breakdown
and build up of acids that unlocking characteristic coffee flavor.
Different Brews of coffee include Light, medium, Dark, and Darkest.
Light: cinnamon roast, half city, New England
Roaster watch: after about 7 minutes, beans pop and double in size, and light roasting is achieved
American market roasters typically stop here
The surface is dry
Flavor is light-bodied and somewhat sour, grassy, and snappy
Medium: full city, American regular, breakfast, brown
Roaster watch: at 9-11 minutes the beans reach this roast, which U.S. specialty sellers tend to prefer
The surface is try
Flavor is a bit sweeter than light roast; full body balanced by acid snap, aroma, and complexity
Dark: high, Viennese, French, Continental