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CONTENTSPERCEPTION AND ITS OBJECTIVE FACTORS..................................................................3What Is Perception?......................................................................................................................3Sensation and Perception:.............................................................................................................3Perception Process.....................................................................................................................4Selection:.................................................................................................................................4Organization:.........................................................................................................................4Interpretation.........................................................................................................................5Bottom-up processing:...........................................................................................................5Top-down processing:............................................................................................................5FACTORS OF PERCEPTION.....................................................................................................6OBJECTIVE FACTORS OF PERCEPTION.............................................................................6Perceptual Organization...........................................................................................................6Figure and Ground:...............................................................................................................6Grouping:...............................................................................................................................7LAWS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION...........................................................................7Simplicity....................................................................................................................................7Similarity....................................................................................................................................7Proximity....................................................................................................................................8Continuity...................................................................................................................................9Common Fate.............................................................................................................................9Closure........................................................................................................................................9Reference Frames....................................................................................................................10Figural Goodness.....................................................................................................................10PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY...................................................................................................111
Size constancy:.........................................................................................................................11Shape constancy:......................................................................................................................12Brightness Constancy:.............................................................................................................12REFERENCES............................................................................................................................13PLAGIARISM REPORT............................................................................................................142
PERCEPTION AND ITS OBJECTIVE FACTORSBy Shiza RanaWhat Is Perception?Perception refers to the way we perceive the world by using our senses(taste, smell, touch, hear and see) It is whatever is experienced by aperson. World is full of stimuli and so perception means giving meaningto these stimuli present in the environment. It is the process by whichsensory stimulus is interpreted, analyzed and integrated (Morgan,1986).Sensation and Perception:Sensation forms the basis of perception. The process of perceptionstarts when the sensory input of various stimuli are sent to the brain andthe brain gives them meaning in the light of past experiences. To listen to a sound from our earsand describe it as the sound of a drum, to identify the fragrance of different perfumes, to identifya food by mere smell of it are all examples of perception. Sensation is seeing, hearing, tasting,smelling or feeling something but being unable to describe it whereas perception organizes thisinformation and meaningfully interprets it.3Figure 1:A painting showing principleof perception. Some individuals see aface while others see a roomPerception = Sensation + MeaningFigure 1.1Relationship between sensation and perception
Perception ProcessPerception varies from person to person as it includes pastexperiences, beliefs, memory, motivational factors, thought andsensation of that person. Every person perceives a stimuli differentlyas shown in the Figure1.2. Some individuals see a rabbit while theothers see duck. The perceptual process has three aspects i.e.selection, organization and interpretation.Selection:They are an infinite number of stimuli in the environment but our brains don’t have the means topay attention to each and every stimuli. The first step of perception process is making decisionabout which stimulus to pay attention to. This step is mostly unconscious but it can be intentionalas well. We focus on a certain stimulus and this also varies from person to person. Theenvironment and experience also influences the choice to focus on a certain stimulus. When wepay attention to one specific stimulus in our environment whether it may be a sound, smell, taste,or feeling it becomes our attended stimulus.

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