Shiza Rana Pre-Mid Assignment 1.docx - PRE-MID ASSIGNMENT...

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PRE-MID ASSIGNMENTTOPIC:EXPERIMENTS OF LEARNING BYCONDITIONINGClassical conditioning, operant conditioning& learning by insightPRESENTED TO: MA’AM ZARA HAROONPRESENTED BY: SHIZA RANADATE OF SUBMISSION: 25THSEPTMEBER 2020MAJOR COURSE: SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGYCOURSE CODE:APSY 102 [A]SEMESTER: 1SESSION: FALL 2020-2024KINNAIRD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, LAHORE1
Table of ContentsClassical conditioning3Pavlov’s Experiment3Types of stimuli andresponses----------------------------------------------4Three stages of classical conditioning-----------------------------------5pros and cons5Operant conditioning6Experiment 16Experiment 2----------------------------------------------------------------------7Types ofbehaviors---------------------------------------------------------------7Reinforcement in operantconditioning---------------------------------7Pros and cons8Learning byinsight----------------------------------------------8Experiment1-----------------------------------------------------------------------8Experiment2-----------------------------------------------------------------------9Criterion ofinsight----------------------------------------------------------------9Laws ofinsight---------------------------------------------------------------------9Pros andCons-------------------------------------------------------------------- 9Conclusion------------------------------------------------------92
References-----------------------------------------------------103
CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGWhat is Classical Conditioning?Classical conditioning is learning through association. It is a processby which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a stimulus inthe environment. When two stimuli are paired together, the firststimuli produces a natural response by the subject while the seconddoesn’t but after enough repeated pairings the second becomesconditioned and causes the response to happen.Ivan PavlovClassical conditioning was discovered byIvan Pavlov, a Russianpsychologist, who conducted a series of classic experiments withdogs.Pavlov’s Dog ExperimentPavlov inserted a small tube into dog’s mouth to measure the ratesof saliva when it is fed, (its normal reflex). He came across classicalconditioning unintentionally when one day he noticed that the dogsbegan to salivate when they heard footsteps of the lab assistant whofed them. He then wondered if that person stimulated the responseassociated with food.ProcedureHe placed the dog in isolation to prevent other stimuli causing thedog to salivate. The dog was strapped into the harness to limitmovement. A tube was inserted in its mouth that drained the salivainto a measuring bottle, as shown in Fig.1.4
First hepresented the dog with food, thedog automatically begansalivatingThen he presented the dog with food while ringing a bell andrepeated this step several times.He then only rang the bell without any food, the dog began tosalivate. It salivated even when no food was present.He used the following terms to explain types of stimuli andresponses in his experiment:Types of Stimuli and ResponsesReflexReflex is involuntary and automatic response of organism to astimuli, for example if you put your hand on a hot stove, youimmediately withdraw your hand. The hot stove is the stimuliwhile withdrawing your hand is response.Dogs produced salivawhen they smelt food.

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