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Final Review - Astronomy Final Exam Review 1 Light a...

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Astronomy Final Exam Review 1. Light a. Wavelength (λ) - the distance from one peak to the next. b. Frequency - the number of peaks passing by each second. c. Velocity - how fast their peaks travel. i. Relationship: v = λf. d. Electromagnetic spectrum - the complete spectrum of light. e. Continuous spectrum - emits light through a low density cloud and spans a broad range of wavelengths without interruption. f. Emission light spectrum - consists of bright emission lines that are seen against a black background. g. Absorption light spectrum – occurs when a cloud of gas lies between viewer and the light bulb, and the cloud absorbs light of specific wavelengths, so that dark absorption lines are shown over the background rainbow from the light bulb. h. Blackbody radiator - the same as thermal radiator, which is produced by an opaque object that depends only on the object’s temperature. i. If an object glows orange or red , it is at the longest wavelength of visible light. ii. As it heats up it turns blue and, the average wavelength of emitted photons moves closer to the blue part of the spectrum. iii. At the higher temperature is reached, the mix of colors emitted makes the light look white . i. Doppler shift – effect that shifts the wavelengths of spectral features in objects that are moving toward or away from the observer i. Blueshift –object moving toward us; shorter wavelengths = bluer light ii. Redshift – object moving toward us; longer wavelengths = redder light j. Radial velocity – Dopplar effect broadens spectral lines of rotating objects; faster the rotation, the wider the spectral line 2. Telescopes a. Refracting telescope – uses transparent lenses to focus the light from distant objects b. Reflecting telescope – uses a precisely curved primary mirror to gather light and reflect the gathered light to a secondary mirror that lies in front of it. i. Used primarily today c. Advantages i. Only reflecting surface of mirror must be precisely shaped, while refracting lens must be perfect size and precisely shaped on both sides.
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