FINAL review - READINGS Exam 3 Week 9 Ch 20 Monroe Doctrine...

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READINGS Exam 3 Week 9, Ch. 20 Monroe Doctrine – Proclamation by US president James Monroe in 1823 backed by Britain saying that the Western Hemisphere was off limits to colonization . In exchange, Americans agreed to stay away from European colonies elsewhere. Suez Canal – Project stated in 1859 lasting 10 years with approval from Pasha. 1 million workers dug a hundred mile shipping lane through Egyptian territory by hand. Allowed the British to skip the trip are the Cape of Hope, and as Pasha hit bankruptcy the British bought his 44% share. Scramble for Africa – The rapid imposition of European rule in Africa beginning in the 1870’s. King Leopold II of Belgium was most responsible, when he already had a kingdom. The Sueze canal gave easier access to eastern Africa. With the diamond rush and the finding of Livingstone and the competition between Europeans for colonial resources Africa was scrambled for. Boer Wars – Wars resulting from the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa inciting conflicts over land between Boers (settlers of Dutch extractions in South Africa), English settlers and African Natives as the English tried to claim the Transvaal region. Fought in the late 1800s. Map 20.4 – Shows the locations of European colonies in Africa. British East India Company – Founded in 1602 and backed by the British state and army. This state-chartered company was given monopoly-trading rights in India. It acted as a colonizing power in India and became a model for making the transition from mercantile to modern colonialism. Sepoys – Native Indian troops of South Asia who fought for the British colonizing India in the late 18 th century. Indian Rebellion/Mutiny (1857) – Rebellion resulting from British contempt for local people and culture. They tried to introduce standardization without respect to the local religious sensitivities in 1858, trying to force the use of cartridges that contained meat that was sacred to Hindus or unclean to Muslims. If they refused to use them they were imprisoned and fighting became brutal. Civilians, women and children were attacked and there was powerful but unorganized leadership. Civilizing Mission – 19 th century European Christian missionaries, doctors, teachers, engineers, want to bring Europe’s light to dark places. Thought they deserved to rule and was the non-military aspect of colonization.
Social Darwinism – The late 18 th /19 th century application of Darwin’s theory of evolution to human societies with “survival of the fittest” at the center. Social Darwinism, unlike Darwin himself, believed cultures and races that won the struggle for existence had been chosen by nature or God to rule the world. Human Zoos – 20 th century, scientists put African Americans in zoos forcing them to perform tricks and entertainment. It demonstrated that the whites had superiority over the AA, and helped fuel the mindset of the Nazis.

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