Ch. 14 Student Notes-2008

Ch. 14 Student Notes-2008 - Chapter 14 Population and...

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Chapter 14 Population and Urbanization Henslin Chapter 14 Outline Adapted from: Fowler, L. A. (2008). Instructor’s manual for Henslin: Essentials of sociology a down-to-earth approach (7 th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Henslin, J. M. (2007). Essentials of sociology: A down-to-earth approach (7 th ed.). Boston: Allyn I. A Planet with No Space to Enjoy Life? A. After Spanish explorers of South America introduced the potato to Europe, the population of the continent doubled in the 1700’s with this new food supply, leading economist Thomas Malthus to write the First Essay on Population 1798 . 1. Malthus proposed that if birth rates were not kept in check, there would be too little food to feed the population. 2. New Malthusians agree, pointing to the fact that the world’s population is growing exponentially, with a net increase of 217,000 people per day. B. Anti-Malthusians believe that population growth goes through cycles, and they suggest a four-stage model known as the demographic transition theory . 1. Stage 1 is characterized by a fairly stable population with both high birth and death rates; Stage 2, by a population explosion with high birth rates and low death rates; Stage 3, by population stability with low birth and death rates; and Stage 4, by population shrinkage with high death rates and low birth rates. 2. In every country that industrializes, the birth rate goes down as economic opportunities increase and childrearing becomes more expensive. 3. This process has been followed by European nations, which are currently in Stage 4; all 42 nations of Europe now have negative rates of growth. 4. Anti-Malthusians suggest that the Least Industrialized Nations are now in Stage 2, but that they will likely enter Stage 3 soon, as their growth rates are already declining. C. Droughts and wars—not food shortage and overpopulation—are the main reasons
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Ch. 14 Student Notes-2008 - Chapter 14 Population and...

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