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Human Anatomy and Physiology w/ PathophysiologyCHAPTER 8 – LECTURENERVOUS SYSTEM (PART II)CHAPTER 7Learning OutcomesDiscuss the functions and structure of the brainDescribe sensory, motor and other functions of the brainDescribe the meninges, ventricles and cerebrospinal fluidList down the cranial nerves and their functionsThe brainWhat Does the Brain Do?Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body's functions. Therest of thenervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forthfrom the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord (18 incheslong,1/2 inch thick), which runs from the brain down through the back. It containsthreadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.Weighs about 3 pounds (adult) or 1.3 kg.Protected by the skullThe brain has three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.The ForebrainThe forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of thecerebrum — the area with all the folds and grooves.The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres.The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cortex (also known as "gray matter").In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, andpituitarygland.The MidbrainThe midbrain, underneath the middle of the forebrain, acts as a master coordinatorfor all the messages going in and out of the brain to the spinal cord.The HindbrainThe hindbrain sits underneath the back end of the cerebrum. It consists of thecerebellum, pons, and medulla. The cerebellum — also called the "little brain"because it looks like a small version of the cerebrum — is responsible for balance,movement, and coordination.1
Human Anatomy and Physiology w/ PathophysiologyCHAPTER 8 – LECTUREMAJOR REGIONS OF THE BRAIN(fig. 8.21)Major regions of the brain1.The brainstem2.The cerebellum3.The diencephalon4.The cerebrumBrainstemConnects the spinal cord to the remainder of the brain (fig. 8.22)Consists of Medulla oblongata, Pons and MidbrainContains nuclei involved in vital body functions (control of heart rate, blood pressureand breathing)Damage to brainstem can cause death2

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