09.10 - 9/7/2007 09.10 Energy in Biomass Types of Biomass...

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9/7/2007 1 Energy in Biomass Plants convert solar energy into chemical energy. Most energy is stored in sugars and carbohydrates. Carbon dioxide is consumed in the process The oldest form of energy used by humans: burning wood for heat and light Types of Biomass Sources include both energy crops and waste: •Wood and wood waste burned with coal to produce electricity •Wood products burned for heat in homes and in industry •Ethanol from wood chips, stalks, or grasses. •Biodiesel produced from oil seed crops Energy from biomass currently supplies 3% of US energy. The DOE estimates that it can provide ~20% by 2030. Biomass energy can be used in all sectors: biofuels for transportation, or burned to produce heat and electricity. Advantages of Biomass Energy Biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) are renewable liquid energy sources for transportation that can reduce our reliance on foreign oil. • Synergistic with well-established US industries - agriculture and forest products. • Reduces greenhouse gas emissions - carbon released from burning is largely consumed in growing crops. Biodiesel Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel can be made from renewable sources such as vegetable oil. Chemically, vegetable oil has long chain fatty acids bound up as esters (RCOOR’). 09.10
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9/7/2007 2 Making Biodiesel A transesterification process is used to remove the glycerol molecule (R’ is part of glycerol) from the three long chain fatty acids (R plus COOH) by an exchange reaction with an alcohol (R’’OH). animatio n Transesterification RCOOR’ + R’’OH ! RCOOR’’ + R’OH The resulting free fatty acid esters can be used in diesel engines.
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2008 for the course CHEN 1000 taught by Professor Degrazia,j during the Fall '04 term at Colorado.

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09.10 - 9/7/2007 09.10 Energy in Biomass Types of Biomass...

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