Ecology - Ecology Biosphere All global geological climatic...

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Ecology Biosphere All global geological, climatic and living things working together Some sense like a “Giant Organism” To a large part homeostatic o However, Things such as global warming demonstrate the potentially catastrophic effects of seemingly miniscule changes Ecology The study of the interaction of plants, animals, and environmental factors Ecosystems A collection of different communities living together with the abiotic and other living organisms Size is by definition Community Population Individual Abiotic factors- Physical, non-living things, geology, altitude, water availability, water quality, temperature, climate and weather factors Biotic factors- plants, animals. Food resources, diseases, parasites, bacteria, fungi Energy Flow in Ecosystems Autotrophs- Self-feeding (Photosynthetic plants) Heterotrophs- other feeding o Herbivore- plant material o Carnivore- flesh eaters o Omnivore- Herbivore and Carnivore Decomposers- fungi and bacteria (Recycling nutrients) o CO2 + H2O + Sunlight ------O2 + Glucose (Taking sunlight and making stored energy out of it) (Photosynthesis) In our bodies we take glucose and make ATP (Respiration)
Ecosystems Biomass- Measure of stored energy (calories) Fixed energy level at a particular point in time Productivity- the amount of biomass produced in a year. represented by g/m^2/year Trophic Structures- “Feeding Levels” Trophic Levels- Represent food chains Keystone Species’ - build their own ecosystems e.g. Beaver, Witch Doctor a species which either creates an ecosystem or is crucial to the survival of a species Habitat- Place or surroundings where an organism lives ( address ) Niche- Role of a species (plant or animal) within an ecosystem ( what it does/job ) Carbon Cycle Sources of carbon Living Things- Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, and Nucleic Acid (All carbon structures) CO2 Minerals Carbonates (limestone, Hokie Stone) Fossil Fuels Addition to the Atmosphere Respiration-------- CO2 (all the below ones, too) Industrial Pollution, from fossil fuels Erosion of minerals Nitrogen Cycle 78% of atmosphere is Nitrogen Importance to Living Things
Component of Proteins and other Biological molecules Aids in the growth of plants (in the form of Nitrates) Addition to the atmosphere Nitrogen Fixation from Bacteria Erosion form minerals Run off from fertilizers Lightening an formation of nitrates Industrial pollution (Legumes are not nitrate fixing) Phosphorus Cycle Importance to living Things Calcium Phosphate- Bones and Teeth, ATP, and all Phosphate molecules Minerals (phosphates Limiting to plants, increases bloom and fruits Addition to the Atmosphere Erosion from minerals Uplifting from ponds and lakes Run off from fertilizers Industrial pollution from detergents Sources of Water in the Atmosphere Evaporation- conversion to water vapor from bodies of water, oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams o 84% of water vapor comes from the oceans o 16% from land o 77% Falls back over the ocean o 78% of moisture comes to land o 23% falls over land

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