Anatomy Clinical Blue Boxes

Anatomy Clinical Blue Boxes - p. 434: "Abnormal...

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p. 434: &Abnormal Curvatures of the Vertebral Column± Result of: -developmental anomalies -pathological processes (i.e. osteoporosis) Types: 1. Kyphosis: a.k.a. humpback, hunchback; characterized by an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature; the vertebral column curves posteriorly; results in an increase in the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax. a. can result from erosion of the anterior part of one or more vertebrae b. Dowager&s hump: colloquial name for kyphosis in older women caused by wedge fractures of the thoracic vertebrae from osteoporosis 2. Lordosis: a.k.a. hollow back, sway back; characterized by an anterior rotation of the pelvis at the hip joints producing an abnormal increase in the lumbar curvature; vertebral column curves more anteriorly a. often linked with weakened abdominal musculature b. can be caused by pregnancy or obesity 3. Scoliosis: a.k.a. crooked or curved back; characterized by abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae a. most common deformity of the vertebral column in pubertal girls b. causes include weakness of intrinsic back muscles, failure of 1/2 of vertebra to develop and difference in the length of lower limbs. 4. Kyphoscoliosis: kyphosis combined with scoliosis; abnormal AP diameter produces severe restriction of the thorax and lung expansion p. 451 &Herniation of the Nucleus Pulposus± 1. Approximately 95% of lumbar disc protrusions occur at L4/5 or L5/S1 levels 2. Causes include: violent hyperflexion of the vertebral column, degeneration of posterior longitudinal ligaments and thinning of the anulus fibrosus 3. Symptoms of localized back pain resulting from pressure on the longitudinal ligaments and periphery of the anulus fibrosus and from local inflammation due to chemical irritation by substances from the ruptured nucleus pulposus; chronic pain results from the compression of spinal roots 4. Lumbago: acute mid-low back pain radiating down the posterolateral aspect of the thigh and leg; often caused by a posterolateral protrusion of a lumbar intervertebral disk at the L5-S1 level that affects the S1 component of the sciatic nerve 5. Sciatica: pain in the lower back and hip radiating down the back into the leg a. caused by a herniated lumbar IV disc that compresses and compromises the
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Anatomy Clinical Blue Boxes - p. 434: "Abnormal...

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