DAMAGE - Lower Motor Syndrome - Cause: lesion of lower...

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Lower Motor Syndrome - Cause: lesion of lower motor neurons - Symptoms: o Flaccid paralysis or paresis o Hypoflexia o Decreased muscle tone o Atrophy – after prolonged time o Fasciculations – small twitches seen by naked eye Upper Motor Neuron Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome - paralysis/paresis - spasticity o hypertonia – increased muscle tone o hyperflexia – increased muscle stretch reflexes o combination makes limbs stiff aka spastic paralysis o - possible other signs o Babinski sign – stroking bottom of foot causing big toe dorsiflexion (corticospinal damage) o Clonus – repeated flex/extension of joint in response to a single stimulus (UMN damage) o Decreased superficial reflexes – skin of umbilicus/cremaster reflex Patterns of UMN Decerebrate rigidity - bilateral damage extending to midbrain - legs/arms extended - reflects remaining antigravity pathways: vestibulospinal and reticulospinal Decorticate rigidity - bilateral damage above the midbrain - legs extended BUT arms are flexed - rubrospinal tract still intact – excited flexors in arms Commonly lesion starts above midbrain and extends caudally over time - transition from decorticate to decerebrate condition
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DAMAGE - Lower Motor Syndrome - Cause: lesion of lower...

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