Chapter4 - Chapter 4 Alkanes Nomenclature Conformational Analysis and an Introduction to Synthesis Shapes of Alkanes"Straight-chain alkanes have a

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Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis
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Chapter 4 2 Shapes of Alkanes “Straight-chain” alkanes have a zig-zag orientation when they are in their most straight orientation Straight chain alkanes are also called unbranched alkanes
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Chapter 4 3 Branched alkanes have at least one carbon which is attached to more than two other carbons
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Chapter 4 4 Constitutional isomers have different physical properties (melting point, boiling point, densities etc.) Constitutional isomers have the same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms
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Chapter 4 5 The number of constitutional isomers possible for a given molecular formula increases rapidly with the number of carbons
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Chapter 4 6 IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes, Alkyl Halides and Alcohols Before the end of the 19th century compounds were named using nonsystematic nomenclature These “common” or “trivial” names were often based on the source of the compound or a physical property The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) started devising a systematic approach to nomenclature in 1892 The fundamental principle in devising the system was that each different compound should have a unique unambiguous name The basis for all IUPAC nomenclature is the set of rules used for naming alkanes
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Chapter 4 7 Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes
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Chapter 4 8 Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkyl groups The unbranched alkyl groups are obtained by removing one hydrogen from the alkane and named by replacing the -ane of the corresponding alkane with -yl
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Chapter 4 9 Nomenclature of Branched-Chain Alkanes (IUPAC) Locate the longest continuous chain of carbons; this is the parent chain and determines the parent name. Number the longest chain beginning with the end of the chain nearer the substituent Designate the location of the substituent When two or more substituents are present, give each substituent a number corresponding to its location on the longest chain Substituents are listed alphabetically
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Chapter 4 10 When two or more substituents are identical, use the prefixes di -, tri -, tetra - etc. Commas are used to separate numbers from each other
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course CHEM 2400 taught by Professor Kellerfiu during the Fall '09 term at Nova Southeastern University.

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Chapter4 - Chapter 4 Alkanes Nomenclature Conformational Analysis and an Introduction to Synthesis Shapes of Alkanes"Straight-chain alkanes have a

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