Chapter2 - Chapter 2 Representative Carbon Compounds:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 Representative Carbon Compounds: Functional Groups, Intermolecular Forces and Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 2 Carbon-carbon Covalent Bonds Carbon forms strong covalent bonds to other carbons and to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur This accounts for the vast variety of organic compounds possible Organic compounds are grouped into functional group families A functional group is a specific grouping of atoms ( e.g . carbon- carbon double bonds are in the family of alkenes) An instrumental technique called infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to determine the presence of specific functional groups
Background image of page 2
Chapter 2 3 Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes, Alkenes Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms Subgroups of Hydrocarbons: Alkanes contain only carbon-carbon single bonds Alkenes contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds Alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds Aromatic hydrocarbons contain benzene-like stable structures (discussed later) Saturated hydrocarbons: contain only carbon-carbon single bonds e.g. alkanes Unsaturated hydrocarbons: contain double or triple carbon- carbon bonds e.g. alkene, alkynes, aromatics Contain fewer than maximum number of hydrogens per carbon Capable of reacting with H 2 to become saturated
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 4 Representative Hydrocarbons Alkanes Principle sources of alkanes are natural gas and petroleum Smaller alkanes (C 1 to C 4 ) are gases at room temperature Methane is A component of the atmosphere of many planets Major component of natural gas Produced by primitive organisms called methanogens found in mud, sewage and cows’ stomachs
Background image of page 4
Chapter 2 5 Alkenes Ethene (ethylene) is a major industrial feedstock Used in the production of ethanol, ethylene oxide and the polymer polyethylene Propene (propylene) is also very important in industry Molecular formula C 3 H 6 Used to make the polymer polypropylene and is the starting material for acetone Many alkenes occur naturally
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 6 Alkynes Ethyne (acetylene) is used in welding torches because it burns at high temperature Many alkynes are of biological interest Capillin is an antifungal agent found naturally Dactylyne is a marine natural product Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives
Background image of page 6
Chapter 2 7 Benzene: A Representative Hydrocarbon Benzene is the prototypical aromatic compound The Kekulé structure (named after August Kekulé who formulated it) is a six- membered ring with alternating double and single bonds Benzene does not actually have discreet single and double carbon-carbon bonds All carbon-carbon bonds are exactly equal in length (1.38 Å) This is between the length of a carbon-carbon single bond and a carbon-carbon double bond Resonance theory explains this by suggesting there are two
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course CHEM 2400 taught by Professor Kellerfiu during the Fall '09 term at Nova Southeastern University.

Page1 / 50

Chapter2 - Chapter 2 Representative Carbon Compounds:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online