ChapterTwoReview - THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER Elements,...

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THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures: An atomic overview. Matter exists in three physical states: solid, liquid, and gas. A solid is characterized by a fixed shaped and fixed volume. A liquid has a variable shape, but a fixed volume. A gas has a variable shape and a variable volume. As temperature increases, a solid melts to a liquid and then vaporizes to a gas. A direct change of state from a solid to a gas is called sublimation. Conversely, as temperature decreases, a gas condenses to a liquid and then freezes to a solid. A direct change of state from a gas to a solid is called deposition. We can classify matter according to its properties. A heterogeneous mixture has an indefinite composition and variable properties; it can be separated into two or more substances. A homogeneous mixture has a definite composition but variable properties from sample to sample; examples include alloys, solutions, and mixtures of gases. A substance can be either an element or a compound. A substance has a definite composition and constant properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. A compound contains two or more elements in chemical combination; it exhibits different properties from its component elements. The elements of a compound occur in fixed parts by mass with a fixed numbers of each type of atom. A mixture consists of two or more substances mixed together, not chemically combined and their components retain their individual properties and can be present in any proportions. The properties of substances are classified as physical or chemical. A physical property refers to characteristics such as color, density, melting point, conductivity of heat and electricity, solubility, and physical state. A chemical property refers only to the chemical reactions of a substance with
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course CHEM 1300/ taught by Professor Ballester during the Fall '08 term at Nova Southeastern University.

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ChapterTwoReview - THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER Elements,...

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