CHAPTER 6_GASES_Fall_2006_FINAL

CHAPTER 6_GASES_Fall_2006_FINAL - CHAPTER 6: GASES...

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CHAPTER 6: GASES (Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) Chemical properties vs. physical properties Reactions to produce gases: 2 HgO (s)  ====>  2 Hg (l)  +   O (g) CaCO 3  (s) ====>   CaO (s)  +   CO (g) CH 2 -ONO 2     l         CH-ONO 2     (l)    ====>    6 N 2  (g)  +  12 CO (g)   +  O (g)    l +  H 2 O (g) CH 2 -ONO 2     The Gas Laws: Ideal Gases Observation: gases are compressible – and entire industry is based  on this
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Quantitative description of behavior of gases: pressure temperature volume n Boyle’s Law :  effect of pressure on volume (T and n constant) P   α 1/V    or   P = C B (1/V)    [C B  = a proportionality  constant;  value f (n and K) P 1 V 1  = P 2 V = P 3 V 3  … = constant for constant T and n How do we measure P?   manometer Units of pressure:  mm Hg … torr … atm  (1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg) in SI … Pascals … 1 atm = 101,325 Pa psi and psig Charles’ Law : effect of T on volume (P and n constant)
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α T       V = C C T   C = proportionality constant; value               f(n and P)         V 1 /T 1  = V 2 /T 2  = V 3 /T … = constant for constant P and n Units of T?  Kelvins ….  temp in K = temp in C o  + 273.15 Avogadro’s Law : effect of n on V at constant T and P V   α n V = C A n C A  = prop. constant; value  f(T and P) Put them all together, they spell … the IDEAL GAS LAW … PV = C B              V/T = C C            V/n = C A therefore:   PV   =  (C B )(C A )(C C ) = R  nT OR --  PV = nRT R = gas constant = 0.0820578 lit atm/K mol = 0.08206 lit atm/K mol
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CHAPTER 6_GASES_Fall_2006_FINAL - CHAPTER 6: GASES...

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