301F07RevExam4 - AST 301 Fall 2007 Scalo-Review sheet for...

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AST 301 Fall 2007– Scalo—Review sheet for Exam 4 Exam 4 covers chapters 16 (the sun), 17 (properties of stars) and 18 (the interstellar medium); we are postponing 19 because of timing--it will be included on the next exam. By now I assume you know what types of questions at the end of the chapters or at the textbook web site are relevant for exams; basically try them all unless they concern a topic we aren’t covering (only a few such things—see below); just don’t worry much about numerical problems, except for the simplest of them (see below). I did put a list of suggested questions at the course web site for download. The exam is weighted toward Chapter 17—more than half the exam questions are on this chapter. This is because there is so much information in it. It will probably help if I summarize here a few things about each chapter. Chapter 16 We discuss our first star, the Sun, before studying stars in general. In this chapter, remember that you don’t have to study the (interesting!) sections on Solar Magnetism (sec. 16.4) or The Active Sun (sec. 16.5), although I hope you will look through it—it is our only chance to observe a star’s complexity close-up. Continue with sections 16.6, 16.7. The way I suggest you review this material is: Begin at the center of the Sun and describe in as much detail as possible what is going on at each depth as you work your way out, concentrating on how energy is generated in the center, making its way through the radiative and convective zones (what do these words mean?), and eventually being emitted at the photosphere? At each point try to explain how we could know about these regions if we can’t see into the sun. What is the photosphere anyway? Look at Discovery 16-1 on p. 420. What is helioseismology and what has been learned from it? Concerning the proton-proton cycle, the specific way in which the sun uses nuclear fusion, I don’t expect you to memorize the steps in the reaction sequence, but I do expect you to know what’s going on. For example: Explain why hydrogen is used as a stellar fuel instead of some other element. Does the newly produced helium have
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