AP Human Geo Unit 5 Notes - In Class Notes 3/11 u25cf The...

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In Class Notes 3/11 The first agriculturalist were also hunter-gathers Agriculture- deliberate modification of the earth’s surface in the tending of crops and livestock to produce food. Culture changes the way food is prepared and handled. eg. Holy Cows in India Cultivate - to care for Vegetative Planting - reproduction of plants by direct cloning eg. cutting stems and deciding roots Seed Agriculture- planting of seeds to reproduce plants Only ½ of grains grown in US are consumed by people the other half is to feed grains to the livestock. Uneven food distribution, undernourishment in periphery countries Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOS) : goal : increased crop protection What is agriculture, and where did agriculture begin? primary economic activity - economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture secondary economic activity - economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector tertiary economic activity - economic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs) q uaternary economic activity - service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services) quinary economic activity - service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management) One farmer in the US can feed 135 people Hunting, Gathering, and Fishing People gathered everywhere before agriculture. Varies on climate and resource availability Terrain and Tools Before agriculture, hunter-gatherers perfected tools, controlled fires, and adapting environments to what they needed Started with a club, (a tree with a heavy end), next a spear, the axes. Learned how to control/maintain fire. The First Agricultural Revolution plant domestication - genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention root crops - crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants seed crops - crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants First Agricultural Revolution- Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication Domestication of Animals animal domestication - genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control Subsistence Agriculture in the Modern World subsistence agriculture - self sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology & emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade shifting cultivation - cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed

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