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Ln306_Guide3-FinalVersion

Ln306_Guide3-FinalVersion - LIN 306 December 7 Test Study...

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LIN 306: December 7 Test Study Guide FINAL VERSION The following are things you should know and understand for the December 8 test. You can expect mainly short-answer questions, including multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, true-false, and matching. There will be a focus on concepts, terminology, and analysis of data. Your best study tools will be: Read the assigned text, chapters 10, 11, 12 and the articles by King and Rickford Look over your class notes and handouts—you are responsible for what went on in class, some of which is not in the book Look over the assignments that you did—they are a good guide to what to expect on the analytic portions of the test Get with each other : It helps to study with somebody Get with us during our office hours or after class. We can help you and we want you to learn and do well! Sociolinguistics This will be about 40% of the test. Be sure you know and understand: Sociolinguistics (like all social science) is concerned with (a) What people do; (b) What people think they do; and (c) What people say they do. These are not the same. With respect to language, (a) would be called linguistic practice while (b) and (c) would be called linguistic ideology. Speech community. Be familiar with the concept. Remember that everyone belongs to overlapping speech communities based on such factors as geography, age, occupation, ethnicity, family networks, and others. Social network as the notion relates to speech communities Pidgins and creoles. Be aware of what they are and of their status as "mixed languages" (having most of their vocabulary from a colonial language but some grammar and other features from local languages). Note that pidgins were what arose when colonizing and colonized groups came in contact for the first time, whereas a creole is the development of a pidgin into a primary local language that is learned natively by children. The notion of focus , and the focus continuum: ad hoc communication, Pidgins , creoles , and established languages and speech communities . Focus is a matter of the amount of established common ground that people have for communication—very little in the case of ad hoc communication, and quite a lot in the case of an established speech community. Also, the relation of focus to personal and ethnic identity in the formation and maintenance of ethnicity and nationhood . Understand the idea that language is identity ; and that humans generally react to linguistic differences viscerally (in your guts!). This helps explain why people maintain linguistic differences (or, if they chose, reshape their speech as a way of reshaping their social and personal identity.) Also, be aware of the role of prejudice in people's attitudes toward linguistic diversity and difference, such that some speech varieties are viewed as stigmatized and in some cases banned in schools or in public, the subject of language riots (as discussed by Robert King) or the topic of heated debate, as in the case of
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Lin 306, December 8 Test Study Guide, page 2 Ebonics (African-American vernacular English, as discussed by John Rickford). Be
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