Taoism: Nature and Relativity of Being Taoism, like Confucianism, was not an organized school, sect, or movement during the Warring States period, but developed into an intellectual (and later religious) tradition that had widespread influence throughout subsequent Chinese history. Early Taoist texts were highly critical of the conformist, morality-focused teachings of Confucius and his followers, and this tendency continued as Taoism served as an alternative to Confucianism for intellectuals as well as an ideology for resistance and rebellion to political authority. Foundations: Laozi, 6thor 4thc.? 老子The Laozi (Lao-tzu, Daode Jing, Tao-te Ching) attributed to Lao Dan or Laozi. Zhuangzi, 399-295 (?) 莊子The Zhuangzi (Chuang-tzu) Concepts: dao (道), de (德), 自然, 無為
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.