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Unformatted text preview: 1CHAPTER 11 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION AND EMOTION I. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. The Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory, proposed by Sigmund Freud is a theory of human motivation. We have discussed parts of this theory in previous pages. Freud believed our actions and motives are determined by our inner forces and impulses belonging to our unconcious mind. He stated that people are motivated by instincts (unlearned behaviors). He proposed two opposing instincts: the life instinct (eros) and the death instinct (thanatos). The energy of life insticnt is called libido (similar to lust). Freud believed that motives were based on instincts. He felt learning and socialization were important in changing instincts. According to him, unconcious motives appear in our dreams, slips of the tongue and various symptoms of mental illness. The two major and basic motives stated by Freud are sex and aggression. 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs As we shall study later, Abraham Maslow proposed five levels of needs in the form of a triangle, from basic needs to higher order onoes. From the lowest to the highest, these levels include biological needs, security need, love and belongingness, self-esteem needs and self-actualization. The highest level of needs according to Maslow is self-actualization which includes reaching the highest potentials. 3. Social Learning Theory According to this theory, psychological motives are most influenced by social factors. This theory emphasizes the interaction between behavior and environment. Patterns of behavior are learned by experience or observation. Vicarious learning is the same as learning by watching others. According to the social learning theory, the two main sources of reinforcement are external and self-evaluative. External reinforcement refers to rewards given from outside sources. Self- evaluative reinforcement refers to the individual reinforcing or rewarding himself or herself. Sometimes self-punnishment is used, when the person uses methods of punishing himself or herself for an act felt not right....
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- Spring '07
- Psychology, Negative emotions